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Logo of bmcmicrBioMed Centralsearchsubmit a manuscriptregisterthis articleBMC Microbiology
 
BMC Microbiol. 2012; 12: 146.
Published online Jul 23, 2012. doi:  10.1186/1471-2180-12-146
PMCID: PMC3464608
Characterisation of MRSA strains isolated from patients in a hospital in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Stefan Monecke,corresponding author#1,2 Leila Skakni,#3 Rami Hasan,#3 Antje Ruppelt,#1 Sameeh S Ghazal,4 Ahmed Hakawi,4 Peter Slickers,2 and Ralf Ehricht2
1Institute for Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, Technical University of Dresden, Dresden, Germany
2Alere Technologies GmbH, Jena, Germany
3Molecular Pathology Laboratory, King Fahad Medical City, PO Box 59046, Riyadh, 11525, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
4Infection Control & Environmental Health Department King Fahad Medical City, PO Box 59046, Riyadh, 11525, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
#Contributed equally.
Stefan Monecke: monecke/at/rocketmail.com; Leila Skakni: lskakni/at/kfmc.med.sa; Rami Hasan: rhasan/at/kfmc.med.sa; Antje Ruppelt: antje.ruppelt/at/gmx.de; Sameeh S Ghazal: sghazal/at/kfmc.med.sa; Ahmed Hakawi: ahakawi/at/kfmc.med.sa; Peter Slickers: piet/at/clondiag.com; Ralf Ehricht: ralf/at/clondiag.com
Received December 29, 2011; Accepted July 2, 2012.
Abstract
Background
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is spreading worldwide and poses a serious public health problem, being present in hospital settings and communities. However, from the Middle East and the Arabian Peninsula few molecular typing data on MRSA strains are currently available. In order to obtain data on the population structure of MRSA in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 107 clinical and environmental MRSA isolates were genotyped using a microarray-based assay.
Results
Five major MRSA strains from four clonal complexes were identified CC8/ST239-III (20.75%), PVL-positive as well as -negative CC22-IV (18.87% and 9.43%, respectively), PVL-positive CC30-IV (12.26%) and PVL-positive CC80-IV (17.92%). Minor strains, which accounted for less than 3% each, included CC1-IV/SCCfus, PVL-positive CC1/ST772-V, PVL-positive as well as- negative CC5-IV, CC5-IV/SCCfus, CC5-V, CC6-IV, CC45-IV, PVL-negative CC80-IV, PVL-positive CC88-IV, CC97-V and a CC9/ST834-MRSA strain.
Conclusions
Typing of MRSA strains from Riyadh revealed a high diversity of clonal complexes. The prevalence of the genes encoding the Panton-Valentine leukocidin was surprisingly high (54.21%), and a significant rate of resistance markers was detected also in strains considered as community-associated.
Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, Saudi-Arabia
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