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Logo of bmcmidmBioMed Centralsearchsubmit a manuscriptregisterthis articleBMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
 
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2012; 12: 86.
Published online Aug 6, 2012. doi:  10.1186/1472-6947-12-86
PMCID: PMC3464151
Statistical process control for data without inherent order
Alan J Pootscorresponding author1 and Thomas Woodcock1
1Imperial College, London and NIHR CLAHRC for NWL, Floor 4 Lift Bank D, Chelsea and Westminster Hospital, 369 Fulham Road, London, SW10 9NH, UK
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
Alan J Poots: a.poots/at/imperial.ac.uk; Thomas Woodcock: thomas.woodcock99/at/imperial.ac.uk
Received February 7, 2012; Accepted July 19, 2012.
Abstract
Background
The XmR chart is a powerful analytical tool in statistical process control (SPC) for detecting special causes of variation in a measure of quality. In this analysis a statistic called the average moving range is used as a measure of dispersion of the data. This approach is correct for data with natural underlying order, such as time series data. There is however conflict in the literature over the appropriateness of the XmR chart to analyse data without an inherent ordering.
Methods
We derive the maxima and minima for the average moving range in data without inherent ordering, and show how to calculate this for any data set. We permute a real world data set and calculate control limits based on these extrema.
Results
In the real world data set, permuting the order of the data affected an absolute difference of 109 percent in the width of the control limits.
Discussion
We prove quantitatively that XmR chart analysis is problematic for data without an inherent ordering, and using real-world data, demonstrate the problem this causes for calculating control limits. The resulting ambiguity in the analysis renders it unacceptable as an approach to making decisions based on data without inherent order.
Conclusion
The XmR chart should only be used for data endowed with an inherent ordering, such as a time series. To detect special causes of variation in data without an inherent ordering we suggest that one of the many well-established approaches to outlier analysis should be adopted. Furthermore we recommend that in all SPC analyses authors should consistently report the type of control chart used, including the measure of variation used in calculating control limits.
Keywords: Statistical process control (SPC), Individual and moving range (XmR), Ordering of data
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