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BMC Public Health. 2012; 12: 417.
Published online Jun 7, 2012. doi:  10.1186/1471-2458-12-417
PMCID: PMC3461458
Integrative study of pandemic A/H1N1 influenza infections: design and methods of the CoPanFlu-France cohort
Nathanael Lapidus,corresponding author1,2 Xavier de Lamballerie,3,4,5 Nicolas Salez,3 Michel Setbon,6,7 Pascal Ferrari,1,2 Rosemary M Delabre,1,2 Marie-Lise Gougeon,8 Frédéric Vely,9,10,11,12 Marianne Leruez-Ville,13,14 Laurent Andreoletti,15,16 Simon Cauchemez,17 Pierre-Yves Boëlle,1,2,18 Eric Vivier,9,10,11,12 Laurent Abel,13,19,20 Michaël Schwarzinger,21,22,23 Michèle Legeas,5 Pierre Le Cann,5 Antoine Flahault,1,5,7 and Fabrice Carrat1,2,18
1Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, UMR-S 707, F-75012 Paris, France
2Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, UMR-S 707, F-75012 Paris, France
3Unité des Virus Emergents, UMR-D 190, Aix-Marseille université and Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Marseille, France
4Laboratoire de Virologie, Pôle hospitalier de Microbiologie et Maladies Infectieuses, Assistance Publique, Hôpitaux de Marseille, Marseille, France
5Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sante Publique, Rennes, France
6CNRS – LEST, UMR 6123 Université d’Aix-Marseille, Aix en Provence, France
7Ecole des Hautes Etudes en Sante Publique, Paris, France
8Institut Pasteur, Antiviral Immunity, Biotherapy and Vaccine Unit, Paris, France
9Centre d’Immunologie de Marseille-Luminy (CIML), Université de la Méditerranée UM 631, Campus de Luminy, 13288 Marseille, France
10Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, UMR-S 631, Marseille, France
11CNRS, UMR 6102, Marseille, France
12Assistance Publique, Hôpitaux de Marseille, Hôpital de la Conception, Marseille, France
13Université Paris Descartes, Sorbonne Paris Cité, EA 36-20 Paris, France
14Laboratoire de Virologie, Hôpital Necker, AP-HP, Paris, France
15Unité de Virologie Médicale et Moléculaire, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Reims, France
16IFR 53/EA-4303 (DAT/PPCIDH), Faculté de Médecine, Reims, France
17Medical Research Council Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modeling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College, London, UK
18Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Saint Antoine, Unité de Santé Publique, F-75012 Paris, France
19Laboratoire de Génétique Humaine des Maladies Infectieuses, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U 550, Paris, France
20Laboratory of Human Genetics of Infectious Diseases, Rockefeller Branch, Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA
21Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, U 912, Marseille, France
22Université Aix Marseille, IRD, UMR-S912, Marseille, France
23Observatoire Régional de la Santé PACA, Marseille, France
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
Nathanael Lapidus: lapidus/at/u707.jussieu.fr; Xavier de Lamballerie: xavier.de-lamballerie/at/univmed.fr; Nicolas Salez: salez.umr190/at/yahoo.fr; Michel Setbon: michel.setbon/at/univmed.fr; Pascal Ferrari: ferrari/at/u707.jussieu.fr; Rosemary M Delabre: delabre/at/u707.jussieu.fr; Marie-Lise Gougeon: mlgougeo/at/pasteur.fr; Frédéric Vely: vely/at/ciml.univ-mrs.fr; Marianne Leruez-Ville: marianne.leruez/at/nck.ap-hop-paris.fr; Laurent Andreoletti: landreoletti/at/chu-reims.fr; Simon Cauchemez: s.cauchemez/at/imperial.ac.uk; Pierre-Yves Boëlle: boelle/at/u707.jussieu.fr; Eric Vivier: eric.vivier/at/ap-hm.fr; Laurent Abel: laurent.abel/at/inserm.fr; Michaël Schwarzinger: schwarzi/at/univ-paris12.fr; Michèle Legeas: michele.legeas/at/ehesp.fr; Pierre Le Cann: pierre.lecann/at/ehesp.fr; Antoine Flahault: antoine.flahault/at/ehesp.fr; Fabrice Carrat: carrat/at/u707.jussieu.fr
Received March 25, 2012; Accepted June 7, 2012.
Abstract
Background
The risk of influenza infection depends on biological characteristics, individual or collective behaviors and the environmental context. The Cohorts for Pandemic Influenza (CoPanFlu) France study was set up in 2009 after the identification of the novel swine-origin A/H1N1 pandemic influenza virus. This cohort of 601 households (1450 subjects) representative for the general population aims at using an integrative approach to study the risk and characteristics of influenza infection as a complex combination of data collected from questionnaires regarding sociodemographic, medical, behavioral characteristics of subjects and indoor environment, using biological samples or environmental databases.
Methods/Design
Households were included between December 2009 and July 2010. The design of this study relies on systematic follow-up visits between influenza seasons and additional visits during influenza seasons, when an influenza-like illness is detected in a household via an active surveillance system. During systematic visits, a nurse collects individual and environmental data on questionnaires and obtains blood samples from all members of the household. When an influenza-like-illness is detected, a nurse visits the household three times during the 12 following days, and collects data on questionnaires regarding exposure and symptoms, and biological samples (including nasal swabs) from all subjects in the household. The end of the follow-up period is expected in fall 2012.
Discussion
The large amount of data collected throughout the follow-up will permit a multidisciplinary study of influenza infections. Additional data is being collected and analyzed in this ongoing cohort. The longitudinal analysis of these households will permit integrative analyses of complex phenomena such as individual, collective and environmental risk factors of infection, routes of transmission, or determinants of the immune response to infection or vaccination.
Keywords: Influenza a virus H1N1 subtype, Cohort study, Risk factors, France
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