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This article describes several HIV prevention interventions that have demonstrated efficacy in reducing women’s risk of HIV and identifies key research questions to be addressed in the area of HIV prevention for women. The article is organized in a question-and-answer format for clarity of presentation. This format is particularly useful in the latter half, which focuses on specific questions that have emerged from past and ongoing research among women. Some of these research questions include the following: (a) How can researchers develop effective strategies that can prevent women from relapsing to risky sexual practices? (b) What are effective HIV prevention approaches for Latina women? (c) How can interventions be tailored to the needs of women living with HIV? (d) How can we improve the efficacy and cost effectiveness of comprehensive HIV prevention strategies for reducing HIV and other blood-borne and sexually transmitted infections among women?