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J Urban Health. Mar 2005; 82(Suppl 1): i43–i50.
PMCID: PMC3456175
HIV prevalence and risk behaviors among men who have sex with men and inject drugs in San Francisco
Alex H. Kral, Phd,corresponding author1 Jennifer Lorvick,1 Daniel Ciccarone,1 Lynn Wenger,1 Lauren Gee,1 Alexis Martinez,1 and Brian R. Edlin2
1Urban Health Studies, Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, 3180 18th Street Suite 302, 94110 San Francisco, CA
2Center for the Study of Hepatitis C, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, New York
Alex H. Kral, alkral/at/itsa.ucsf.edu.
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
Abstract
The dual risks of male-to-male sex and drug injection have put men who have sex with men and inject drugs (MSM-IDU) at the forefront of the HIV epidemic, with the highest rates of infection among any risk group in the United States. This study analyzes data collected from 357 MSM-IDU in San Francisco between 1998 and 2002 to examine how risk behaviors differ by HIV serostatus and self-identified sexual orientation and to assess medical and social service utilization among HIV-positive MSM-IDU. Twenty-eight percent of the sample tested HIV antibody positive. There was little difference in risk behaviors between HIV-negative and HIV-positive MSM-IDU. Thirty percent of HIV-positive MSM-IDU reported distributive syringe sharing, compared to 40% of HIV negatives. Among MSM-IDU who reported anal intercourse in past 6 months, 70% of positives and 66% of HIV negatives reported unprotected anal intercourse. HIV status varied greatly by self-identified sexual orientation: 46% among gay, 24% among bisexual, and 14% among heterosexual MSM-IDU. Heterosexual MSM-IDU were more likely than other MSM-IDU to be homeless and to trade sex for money or drugs. Gay MSM-IDU were more likely to have anal intercourse. Bisexual MSM-IDU were as likely as heterosexual MSM-IDU to have sex with women and as likely as gay-identified MSM-IDU to have anal intercourse. Among MSM-IDU who were HIV positive, 15% were currently on antiretroviral therapy and 18% were currently in drug treatment, and 87% reported using a syringe exchange program in the past 6 months. These findings have implications for the development of HIV interventions that target the diverse MSM-IDU population.
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Selected References
These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
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