**Table 3**

Variable ^{*} | Mean Change at Mid-Point from Baseline (SD) ^{**} | Mean Change at Final from Baseline (SD) ^{**} |
---|---|---|

2x RT | n=51 | n=46 |

Stroop CW – Stroop C (sec) | −0.96 (15.13) | 5.01 (13.75) |

Trail B – Trail A (sec) | 10.27 (40.25) | 10.96 (36.92) |

Digit Forward – Digit Backward | −0.67 (2.94) | −0.47 (2.24) |

Gait Speed (m/sec) | 0.19 (0.17) | 0.24 (0.16) |

1 RM (N)^{†} | 60.27 (51.18 | 69.80 (74.75) |

Peak Muscle Power (W)^{†} | 74.68 (118.55) | 72.42 (108.12) |

% Δ Whole Brain Volume^{§} | −0.02 (0.60) | −0.43 (0.65) |

1x RT | n=49 | n=47 |

Stroop CW – Stroop C (sec) | 0.28 (28.37) | 6.22 (22.31) |

Trail B – Trail A (sec) | 4.91 (26.12) | 7.3 (30.36) |

Digit Forward – Digit Backward | −0.43 (2.63) | 0.06 (2.54) |

Gait Speed (m/sec) | 0.18 (0.19) | 0.19 (0.19) |

1 RM (N)^{†} | 42.15 (57.26) | 44.22 (67.10) |

Peak Muscle Power (W)^{†} | −27.54 (105.66) | −78.61 (151.03) |

% Δ Whole Brain Volume^{§} | −0.04 (0.48) | −0.32 (0.54) |

BAT | n=44 | n=42 |

Stroop CW – Stroop C (sec) | −4.27 (15.15) | 0.26 (17.12) |

Trail B – Trail A (sec) | 2.17 (39.27) | 8.64 (32.15) |

Digit Forward – Digit Backward | −0.93 (3.42) | −0.64 (2.70) |

Gait Speed (m/sec) | 0.17 (0.16) | 0.22 (0.18) |

1 RM (N)^{†} | 24.73 (53.44) | 18.15 (70.06) |

Peak Muscle Power (W)^{‡} | −24.27 (132.56) | −90.60 (144.58) |

% Δ Whole Brain Volume^{§} | 0.13 (0.67) | 0.00 (0.63) |

^{*}Stroop CW = Stroop colour-words condition; Stroop C = Stroop coloured-X’s condition; N = newtons; W = watts; m/sec = meters per second.

^{**}Mean change for all cognitive measures = baseline value minus mid-point value or baseline value minus final value. Positive change indicates improvement. Mean change for all performance measures = mid-point value minus baseline value or final value minus baseline value. Positive change indicates improvement.

^{†}2x RT baseline n=31, mid-point n=26, final n=25; 1x RT baseline n=30, mid-point n=28, final n=27; BAT baseline n=27, mid-point n=21, final n=24.

^{‡}2x RT baseline n=30, mid-point n=23, Final n=25; 1x RT baseline n=29, mid-point n=26, final n=27; BAT baseline n=27, mid-point n=21, final n=24.

^{§}2x RT % Δ in whole brain volume from baseline to mid-point n=18, % Δ in whole brain volume from baseline to final n=18; 1x RT % Δ in whole brain volume from baseline to mid-point n=28, % Δ in whole brain volume from baseline to final n=28; BAT % Δ in whole brain volume from baseline to mid-point n=20, % Δ in whole brain volume from baseline to final n=18.