**Table 2**

Variable ^{*} | Baseline | Mid-Point | Final |
---|---|---|---|

Mean (SD) | Mean (SD) | Mean (SD) | |

2x RT | n=52 | n=51 | n=46 |

Stroop CW – Stroop C (sec) | 45.02 (15.8) | 46.08 (17.2) | 40.88 (14.9)^{**} |

Trail B – Trail A (sec) | 49.53 (36.6) | 41.66 (30.8) | 38.72 (33.6) |

Digit Forward – Digit Backward | 3.40 (2.4) | 4.12 (2.9) | 3.82 (2.1) |

Gait Speed (m/sec) | 1.16 (0.2) | 1.34 (0.2) | 1.41 (0.2) |

1 RM (N)^{†} | 314.97 (66.9) | 380.61 (84.0) | 388.20 (82.4) |

Peak Muscle Power (W)^{†} | 624.88 (194.2) | 707.24 (171.6)^{**} | 708.56 (161.2)^{**} |

% Δ Whole Brain Volume from Baseline^{§} | N/A | −0.02 (0.60) | −0.43 (0.65)^{**} |

1x RT | n=54 | n=49 | n=47 |

Stroop CW – Stroop C (sec) | 47.37 (26.2) | 46.46 (25.8) | 39.49 (14.1)^{**} |

Trail B – Trail A (sec) | 41.35 (26.5) | 36.13 (27.8) | 34.05 (27.4) |

Digit Forward – Digit Backward | 3.52 (2.0) | 3.83 (2.3) | 3.38 (1.9) |

Gait Speed (m/sec) | 1.17 (0.2) | 1.36 (0.2) | 1.37 (0.2) |

1 RM (N)^{†} | 323.94 (63.2) | 371.00 (86.4) | 386.48 (97.0) |

Peak Muscle Power (W)^{†} | 679.30 (184.2) | 633.37 (192.3) | 622.26 (204.4) |

% Δ Whole Brain Volume from Baseline^{§} | N/A | −0.04 (0.48) | −0.32 (0.54)^{**} |

BAT | n=49 | n=44 | n=42 |

Stroop CW – Stroop C (sec) | 43.98 (15.1) | 49.23 (19.1) | 43.77 (18.9) |

Trail B – Trail A (sec) | 47.12 (41.3) | 43.37 (28.8) | 35.98 (21.9) |

Digit Forward – Digit Backward | 3.25 (2.5) | 4.35 (2.8) | 4.00 (1.9) |

Gait Speed (m/sec) | 1.17 (0.2) | 1.33 (0.2) | 1.37 (0.2) |

1 RM (N)^{†} | 338.18 (70.4) | 363.91 (77.4) | 356.33 (85.3) |

Peak Muscle Power (W)^{‡} | 660.30 (229.7) | 649.52 (208.8) | 552.08 (194.0) |

% Δ Whole Brain Volume from Baseline^{§} | N/A | 0.13 (0.67) | 0.00 (0.63) |

^{*}Stroop CW = Stroop colour-words condition; Stroop C = Stroop coloured-X’s condition; N = newtons; W = watts; m/sec = meters per second.

^{**}Significantly different from the BAT group at p<0.05.

For Stroop Test, 95% CI of difference between 1x RT and BAT = −13.8 to −2.5 and 95% CI of difference between 2x RT and BAT = −12.2 to −0.8.

For peak muscle power, 95% CI of difference between 2x RT and BAT at mid-point = 22.2 to 151.3 and 95% CI of difference between 2x RT and BAT at trial completion = 81.7 to 230.0.

For % Δ in whole brain volume, 95% CI of difference between 1x RT and BAT = −0.76 to −0.04 and 95% CI of difference between 2x RT and BAT = −0.89 to −0.12.

^{†}2x RT baseline n=31, mid-point n=26, final n=25; 1x RT baseline n=30, mid-point n=28, final n=27; BAT baseline n=27, mid-point n=21, final n=24.

^{‡}2x RT baseline n=30, mid-point n=23, Final n=25; 1x RT baseline n=29, mid-point n=26, final n=27; BAT baseline n=27, mid-point n=21, final n=24.

^{§}2x RT % Δ in whole brain volume from baseline to mid-point n=18, % Δ in whole brain volume from baseline to final n=18; 1x RT % Δ in whole brain volume from baseline to mid-point n=28, % Δ in whole brain volume from baseline to final n=28; BAT % Δ in whole brain volume from baseline to mid-point n=20, % Δ in whole brain volume from baseline to final n=18.