For data analysis, Student's t-test, Chi-square test and Fishers exact test were used, with a P value of <0.05 being considered to be statistically significant.
The student population consisted of 5000 subjects, which included 2727 (54.54%) females and 2273 (45.46%) males. The students fulfilling IHS criteria numbered 3320 (66.4%) .
Prevalence of primary headache disorders in school children
The prevalence of primary headache disorders was more common in female sex (65.15%) as compared with male gender (35.85%), which was statistically significant (P value <0.05)  The study revealed an increasing trend in prevalence of primary headache disorders with an increase in age .
Gender-specific prevalence of primary headache disorders in school children
Age-specific prevalence of primary headache disorders in school children
Moreover, the prevalence of primary headache disorders differed according to schooling status of the students. An increase in the prevalence of primary headache disorders was observed among students belonging to government-run educational institutions (882.01/1000) as compared with their counterparts belonging to privately run educational institutions (510.23/10000) . TTH (50.99%) was the most common headache syndrome, followed by migraine (26.98%) . Throbbing quality headache was noticed in 46.05% of the patients, followed by continuous headache in 13.19% and pressing quality in 18.01% cases.
Headache prevalence in relation to schooling status
Prevalence of headache subtypes in school children
Furthermore, a positive family history of headache was elicited in 66.18% of migraneurs as compared with 35% in the tension-type group, the difference being statistically significant (P value <0.05).
Other noteworthy findings in the present study included: (i) aura was associated with 35.49% of the students with migranous headache, (ii) average frequency, duration and age of onset of first episode of headache was 2.6 episodes/month, 6.3 h and 9.2 years, respectively, (iii) stress that included mental stress, sleep deprivation, physical exertion, watching TV for long hours, etc. was the most common trigger factor for all primary headache disorders in general and more so for migraine (85.06%) than TTH (43.08%), (iv) majority of the patients received analgesics (77.5%) to relieve their headache and (v) the primary headache disorders contributed to 34.61% of the total school days lost in a calendar year.