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From:
Published online Sep 12, 2012. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045006
Table 1
The effect of L-carnosine, D-carnosine, L-histidine and β-alanine on the specific growth rate and viability of yeast cultures grown on fermentable (glucose) and non-fermentable (glycerol) carbon sources.
μ (h−1)Viability (%)
L-Carnosine, D-carnosine, L-histidine or β-alanine concentrationadded to the indicated growth medium+2% glucose (2×CBS)+2% glycerol (YP)+2% glucose (2×CBS)+2% glycerol (YP)
Control (0 mM L-carnosine); n = 30.41 (0.00)0.20 (0.01)99.56 (0.12)97.60 (1.04)
10 mM L-carnosine; n = 30.36** (0.01)0.22* (0.01)90.09* (0.28)99.14 (0.63)
20 mM L-carnosine; n = 50.28** (0.01)86.31** (0.94)
30 mM L-carnosine; n = 50.27** (0.02)0.25** (0.01)82.71** (1.67)97.52 (1.92)
10 mM D-carnosine; n = 30.44 (0.00)0.30** (0.00)99.35 (0.33)97.31 (0.34)
10 mM L-histidine; n = 60.40 (0.02)99.94 (0.04)
10 mM β-alanine; n = 30.41 (0.00)99.78 (0.12)
10 mM L-histidine, 10 mM β-alanine; n = 20.42 (0.00)100 (0.00)
30 mM L-histidine, 30 mM β-alanine; n = 30.37** (0.01)0.23* (0.00)99.81 (0.24)98.45 (1.55)
Yeast cells were grown in shake-flasks at 30°C in 2×CBS medium supplemented with 2% glucose or in YP supplemented with 2% glycerol as well as L-carnosine, D-carnosine, L-histidine or β-alanine (0–30 mM). Replicate cultures were performed as indicated and specific growth rates (μ; derived from OD600 growth curves) and viability (%; determined by trypan blue dye exclusion) were determined; a dash (–) indicates that the experimental condition indicated was not investigated. Data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA (P<0.0001). Asterisks show the significance of the specific growth rate data for each culture condition compared to the control, as determined by a Dunnett’s multiple comparison test, where * = P≤0.05 and ** = P≤0.01. The standard error of the mean (SEM) is given in parentheses.
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