Out of 384 participants intended to be included, a complete response was obtained from 382(99.5%) respondents. The mean age of mothers was 25.9 years (±5.15) the range being from 15 to 40 years. Majority of mothers 375(98.2%) were married (Table ).
Socio-demographic Characteristics of Respondents in Jimma Arjo Woreda, 2009
Only 24.6% of mothers breastfed their infants optimally. Among those who ever breastfed, more than half of mothers (62.6%) initiated breastfeeding within first hour of delivery and 272 (72.5%) gave colostrum to their infants, and 43.3% of mothers provided butter and 53.2% gave rue(“tena-addam”) to infants to protect them against stomachache and common cold, respectively. One hundred eighty three (47.91%) mothers reported to have exclusively breastfed. The proportion of exclusive breastfeeding was 37.9% at the end of the first month which dropped to 9.9% at age of 6 months. More than half of mothers (57.22%) breastfed 8 or more times per day and 66.21%) and 59.9% of infants were poorly positioned and attached during breastfeeding, respectively (Table ).
Patterns of breastfeeding experiences in Jimma Arjo Woreda, 2009
Almost all mothers (99.7%) did not believe that breastfeeding takes too much time. Eleven (2.87%) mothers reported that breastfeeding was painful and 12 (3.2%) mothers said their breast was too small to breastfeed. One-hundred twenty-three (32.8%) mothers had information about exclusive breastfeeding from 5-6 months. Few mothers state that colostrum is unclean (10.93%) and it causes a disease (5.6%), Table .
Mother’s knowledge and attitude on breastfeeding in Jimma Arjo Woreda, 2009
Though discarding colostrum is not significantly associated with socio-demographic variables, delayed initiation of breastfeeding was positively associated with nipple pain and lack of formal education. Multivariable regression model showed that mothers who had no education were 5% more likely to initiate breastfeeding after 1 h of child birth than those who attended formal education (AOR = 1.05[95%CI: 1.03, 1.94]). Similarly, mothers who had nipple pain were 5 times more likely to have delayed initiation of breastfeeding (AOR = 5.02[95%CI: 1.01, 10.08]) (Table ).
Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from bivariate and multivariable logistic regression model predicting the likelihood that mothers in Jimma Arjo woreda having delayed initiation of breastfeeding, 2009
Similarly, the qualitative data indicated that all mothers did not know when breastfeeding should be initiated after delivery, but seven mothers reported that they initiated breastfeeding within one hour of child birth. For instance 22 years old merchant mother said:
"“…Actually I started breastfeeding within one hour after delivery. My mother helped me to start breastfeeding.”"
The majority of mothers reported that they did not remember giving breast milk as they were busy with different activities including cutting of umbilical cord and washing the blood. For instance 29 years two farmer mothers said:
"“…I started breastfeeding after everything was settled as there was nobody with me to help me give breast milk for the child”"
In addition, two mothers reported that they delayed to initiate breastfeeding because of their previous nipple pain during breastfeeding.
Non-exclusive breastfeeding was positively associated with child’s age. Mothers who had 0-2 months old infants were 73% less likely to non-exclusively breastfeed than those who had 5-6 months old infants (AOR = 0.27[95%CI: 0.16, 0.47). Similarly, mothers who had 3-4 months old infants were 57% less likely to non-exclusively breastfeed than those who had 5-6 months old infants (AOR = 0.43 [95%CI:0.25, 0.73) (Table ).
Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from bivariate and multivariable logistic regression model predicting the likelihood that mothers in Jimma Arjo Woreda not exclusively breastfed during the first 6 months, 2009
There was also a negative association between ownership of radio and non-exclusive breastfeeding practices. Mothers (households) who had radio were 44% less likely non-exclusively breastfeed compared to those who had no radio (AOR = 0.56[95%CI: 0.37, 0.88]). It was also observed that mothers who discarded colostrum were nearly twice more likely to nonexclusively breastfeed (AOR = 1.78[95%CI: 1.09, 4.94]) (Table ).
In-depth interview of mothers about exclusive breastfeeding, five mothers stated that breast milk is sufficient for infants up to 4 months. For instance 25 years Traditional Birth Attendant mother said:
"“Before I gave birth, I had planned to give only breast milk for 4 months. I will not provide an additional food until my child can sit with hand support…”"
Some mothers provided cow’s milk and soup to infants after a few days of birth. Twenty three years old mothers said:
"“…The baby started to open his mouth, when somebody is eating food since he is not satisfied with breast milk.”"