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Logo of bmcmicrBioMed Centralsearchsubmit a manuscriptregisterthis articleBMC Microbiology
BMC Microbiol. 2012; 12: 156.
Published online Jul 28, 2012. doi:  10.1186/1471-2180-12-156
PMCID: PMC3438129
Isolation and characterization of ZZ1, a novel lytic phage that infects Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates
Jing Jin,1 Zhen-Jiang Li,2 Shu-Wei Wang,2 Shan-Mei Wang,4 De-Hai Huang,2 Ya-Hui Li,2 Yun-Yun Ma,2 Jin Wang,2 Fang Liu,3 Xiang-Dong Chen,3 Guang-Xing Li,1 Xiao-Ting Wang,1 Zhong-Quan Wang,corresponding author1 and Guo-Qiang Zhaocorresponding author1
1Department of Pathogen Biology, Basic Medical College of Zhengzhou University, Kexue Road # 100, Zhengzhou, 450001, P. R. China
2Department of Pathogen Biology and Immunology, Henan Medical College for Staff and Workers, Zhengzhou, China
3State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China
4Clinical Laboratory, Henan Province People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou, China
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
Jing Jin: Jing77772006/at/; Zhen-Jiang Li: lzj403/at/; Shu-Wei Wang: wsw0219/at/; Shan-Mei Wang: wsm1997/at/; De-Hai Huang: hdh88888888/at/; Ya-Hui Li: Mayy1228/at/; Yun-Yun Ma: mayy07/at/; Jin Wang: Wangjin1228/at/; Fang Liu: liufung/at/; Xiang-Dong Chen: xdchen/at/; Guang-Xing Li: Lizj1228/at/; Xiao-Ting Wang: Wangsw1228/at/; Zhong-Quan Wang: wangzq/at/; Guo-Qiang Zhao: zhaogq/at/
Received January 11, 2012; Accepted July 17, 2012.
Acinetobacter baumannii, a significant nosocomial pathogen, has evolved resistance to almost all conventional antimicrobial drugs. Bacteriophage therapy is a potential alternative treatment for multidrug-resistant bacterial infections. In this study, one lytic bacteriophage, ZZ1, which infects A. baumannii and has a broad host range, was selected for characterization.
Phage ZZ1 and 3 of its natural hosts, A. baumanni clinical isolates AB09V, AB0902, and AB0901, are described in this study. The 3 strains have different sensitivities to ZZ1, but they have the same sensitivity to antibiotics. They are resistant to almost all of the antibiotics tested, except for polymyxin. Several aspects of the life cycle of ZZ1 were investigated using the sensitive strain AB09V under optimal growth conditions. ZZ1 is highly infectious with a short latent period (9 min) and a large burst size (200 PFU/cell). It exhibited the most powerful antibacterial activity at temperatures ranging from 35°C to 39°C. Moreover, when ZZ1 alone was incubated at different pHs and different temperatures, the phage was stable over a wide pH range (4 to 9) and at extreme temperatures (between 50°C and 60°C). ZZ1 possesses a 100-nm icosahedral head containing double-stranded DNA with a total length of 166,682 bp and a 120-nm long contractile tail. Morphologically, it could be classified as a member of the Myoviridae family and the Caudovirales order. Bioinformatic analysis of the phage whole genome sequence further suggested that ZZ1 was more likely to be a new member of the Myoviridae phages. Most of the predicted ORFs of the phage were similar to the predicted ORFs from other Acinetobacter phages.
The phage ZZ1 has a relatively broad lytic spectrum, high pH stability, strong heat resistance, and efficient antibacterial potential at body temperature. These characteristics greatly increase the utility of this phage as an antibacterial agent; thus, it should be further investigated.
Keywords: Acinetobacter baumannii , Bacteriophage, Characterization
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