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Logo of bmcentdBioMed Centralsearchsubmit a manuscriptregisterthis articleBMC Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders
 
BMC Ear Nose Throat Disord. 2012; 12: 5.
Published online Jun 6, 2012. doi:  10.1186/1472-6815-12-5
PMCID: PMC3431267
Association of the 4 g/5 g polymorphism of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene with sudden sensorineural hearing loss. A case control study
Seong Ho Cho,corresponding author1,2 Haimei Chen,1 Il Soo Kim,1 Chio Yokose,1 Joseph Kang,1 David Cho,1 Chun Cai,3 Silvia Palma,4 Micol Busi,5 Alessandro Martini,5 and Tae J Yoo3
1Division of Allergy-Immunology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, 676 N. St Clair street #14028, Chicago, IL, 60611, USA
2Kyung Hee University, College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
3University of Tennessee, College of Medicine, Memphis, TN, USA
4University of Modena, Modena, Italy
5University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
Seong Ho Cho: seong-cho/at/northwestern.edu; Haimei Chen: haimei418/at/gmail.com; Il Soo Kim: kimjosephis/at/gmail.com; Chio Yokose: chio.yokose/at/gmail.com; Joseph Kang: joseph-kang/at/northwestern.edu; David Cho: d.cho.93/at/gmail.com; Chun Cai: ccai1/at/uthsc.edu; Silvia Palma: silviapalma/at/inwind.it; Micol Busi: bsumcl/at/unife.it; Alessandro Martini: alessandromartini/at/unife.it; Tae J Yoo: tjyoo/at/hotmail.com
Received December 12, 2011; Accepted May 18, 2012.
Abstract
Background
The 5 G/5 G genotype of PAI-1 polymorphism is linked to decreased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels and it has been suggested that lower PAI-1 levels may provide protective effects on inflammation, local microcirculatory disturbance, and fibrotic changes, which are likely associated with development of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL).
Methods
The association of the 4 G/5 G PAI-1 polymorphism with the development and clinical outcome of SSNHL is evaluated via a case control study. 103 patients with SSNHL and 113 age and sex-matched controls were enrolled at University of Ferrara, Italy and hearing loss outcome was measured at least 3 months after the onset of hearing loss. DNA was isolated from peripheral blood using the QIAamp kit and the 4 G/5 G polymorphism in the −675 promoter region was genotyped with an allele-specific PCR. Genotype distribution was tested in patients and compared to controls by chi-square and odd-ratio analysis. The codominant and recessive models were used for the multiple logistic regression analyses of the PAI-1 gene allele.
Results
In this population, 5 G/5 G genotype had a two-time lower frequency in SSNHL patients compared to healthy controls (15.5% vs 30.1%) and was associated with decreased odds compared to 4 G/5 G genotype (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.19-0.75, p = 0.005). In addition, the patients with 5 G/5 G genotype showed a trend of more than 2 times higher ratio of hearing recovery (> 20 dB) after systemic corticosteroid treatment compared to 4 G/5 G genotype (OR 2.3, 95% CI 0.32 - 16.83, p = 0.39), suggesting a better clinical outcome.
Conclusions
The 5 G/5 G genotype of PAI-1 may be associated with a reduced risk of SSNHL in the Italian population.
Keywords: Sudden hearing loss, Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, 4 G/5 G polymorphism
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