Depress Res Treat. 2012; 2012: 160905.
Predicting Depression with Psychopathology and Temperament Traits: The Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort
1Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, 90014 Oulu, Finland
2Clinic of Psychiatry, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland
3Department of Chronic Disease Prevention, National Institute for Health and Welfare, Haartmaninkatu 8, 00251 Helsinki, Finland
4UCLA Center for Neurobehavioral Genetics, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, Gonda Building, Room 3506, 695 Charles E. Young Drive South, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA
5Institute of Health Sciences, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 5000, 90014 Oulu, Finland
6Unit of General Practice, Oulu University Hospital, 90029 Oulu, Finland
7Department of Mental Health and Substance Use Services, National Institute for Health and Welfare, P.O. Box 30, 00271 Helsinki, Finland
8Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK
9Social Psychiatry Unit, School of Health Sciences, University of Tampere, 33014 Tampere, Finland
10Department of Psychiatry, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland
11Methadone Maintenance Clinic “Café Ersatz”, Münsterstraße 18, 53111 Bonn, Germany
12Department of Psychiatry, University of Eastern Finland and Kuopio University Hospital, P.O. Box 1777, 70211 Kuopio, Finland
13Department of Psychiatry, South-Savonia Hospital District, Mikkeli, Finland
14Department of Psychiatry, North Karelia Central Hospital, Joensuu, Finland
15Department of Psychiatry, SOSTERI, Savonlinna, Finland
16Department of Psychiatry, SOTE, Iisalmi, Finland
17Department of Psychiatry, Lapland Hospital District, Rovaniemi, Finland
Received May 18, 2012; Accepted July 1, 2012.
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shows mean (SD) values for the different scales in categories of concurrent depression, other psychiatric disorders, and no psychiatric disorders. In 1997, those with depression scored statistically significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those without previous psychiatric disorders in all studied psychopathology scales, except PAS. The difference was highest in SCL-D (means 1.78 versus 1.33, d = 1.29) followed by perceptual aberration scale (means 5.09 versus 2.24, d = 0.90). In temperament dimensions, this difference was statistically significant only in TCI-HA, with higher scores among those with depression (d = 0.70). Almost all the scales were related to depression. However, it was only in SCL-D that those with depression differed statistically significantly from those with other psychiatric disorders with a small effect size (d = 0.20). No significant differences between these two groups were found in temperament dimensions ().
Mean and standard deviation (SD) of psychological scales in the 31-year followup (in 1997) for those with self-report or previous hospitalisation due to depression, other psychiatric disorders, and for those without psychiatric disorders.
Among those with no psychiatric disorders until 1997, 51 (26 males, 51%) new cases with depression requiring hospitalizations emerged during the subsequent followup of thirteen years. This group included subjects with psychotic depression (F323, F333), n = 9 and nonpsychotic depression (F32-F33, not F323, F33; F341), n = 42. In this followup, 57 (36 males, 63%) individuals were hospitalized for other psychiatric disorders. This group included various psychiatric diagnoses. The most common diagnoses were substance use disorder (n = 30), nonaffective psychosis (n = 14), and anxiety disorders (n = 12).
Of the psychopathology scales, the bipolar II scale (d = 0.52), SCL-D (d = 0.48), SCHD (d = 0.46), and SAS (d = 0.45) were the strongest predictors for new cases of depression requiring hospitalization. However, the scales were not diagnosis-specific. The greatest difference between depression and other psychiatric disorders requiring hospitalization (d = −0.33; NS) was found in PAS.
In temperament dimensions, new cases of depression requiring hospitalization scored high in the harm avoidance when compared to those with no hospitalization due to psychiatric causes (16.96 versus 13.77; P < 0.001, d = 0.54). No significant differences were found between the two psychiatric groups. Novelty seeking had the highest effect size (ns, d = −0.32), with lower scores among those with hospitalization due to depression. In additional analyses, between those with depression and other psychiatric disorders we controlled for substance use disorders. The difference between these two groups was statistically significant in harm avoidance in concurrent analyses (F = 7.12, P = 0.008) with higher scores among those with hospitalization due to depression. Differences in other temperament traits or in predictive analyses were nonsignificant ().
Table 3 Mean and standard deviation (SD) of psychological scales in the 31-year followup (in 1997) for those with hospitalisation of depression or other psychiatric disorders and for those without hospitalization due to psychiatric disorders in 1998–2010. (more ...)