1. United Nations World urbanization prospects: the 2009 revision. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division; New York: 2010.
2. van Ginkel HJA, Marcotullio PJ. Asian urbanisation and local and global environmental challenges. In: Keiner M, Koll-Schretsenmayr M, Schmid WA, editors. Managing urban futures: sustainability and urban growth in developing countries. Surrey: Ashgate Pub Ltd; 2007.
5. Satterthwaite D. The transition to a predominantly urban world and its underpinnings: IIED human settlements, discussion paper series—urban change. IIED; London: 2007.
6. WHO Megacities and urban health. World Health Organization Centre for Health Development; Kobe: 2009.
7. Kickbush I. The move towards a new public health. Promot Educ. 2007;14:9.
8. Sclar ED, Garau P, Carolini G. The 21st century health challenge of slums and cities. Lancet. 2005;365:901–03. [PubMed] 10. Harpham T. Urban health in developing countries: what do we know and where do we go? Health Place. 2009;15:107–16. [PubMed] 11. Huber M, Knottnerus JA, Green L, et al. How should we define health? BMJ. 2011;343:d4163. [PubMed]
12. Sen A. The Idea of Justice. Penguin Books; London: 2009.
13. Marmot M. Strategic Review of Health Inequalities in England post 2010. London: 2000. The Marmot Review.
14. WHO and UN-HABITAT Hidden cities: unmasking and overcoming health inequities in urban settings. World Health Organization, The WHO Centre for Health Development, Kobe, and United Nations Human Settlements Programme; Kobe: 2010.
15. Costello A, Abbas M, Allen A, et al. Managing the health effects of climate change: Lancet and University College London Institute for Global Health Commission. Lancet. 2009;373:1693–733. [PubMed]
16. GRNUHE Improving urban health equity through action on the social and environmental determinants of health: global research network on urban health equity, 2010. UCL; London: 2010.
17. Hughes BB, Kuhn R, Peterson CM, et al. Projections of global health outcomes from 2005 to 2060 using the International Futures integrated forecasting model. Bull World Health Organ. 2011;89:478–86. [PubMed] 18. Takano T, Nakamura K. An analysis of health levels and various indicators of urban environments for Healthy Cities projects. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2001;55:263–70. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
19. Cutler D, Deaton A, Lleras-Muney A. The determinants of mortality. J Econ Perspect. 2006;20:97–120.
20. Galea S, Vlahov D. Urban health: evidence, challenges, and directions. Annu Rev Public Health. 2005;26:341–65. [PubMed]
21. Caldwell J, Caldwell B. Poverty and mortality in the context of economic growth and urbanization. Asia Pac Popul J. 2002;17:49–66.
22. McGranahan G. Urban environments, wealth and health: shifting burdens and possible responses in low and middle-income nations. International Institute for Environment and Development; London: 2007.
23. Preston SH. The changing relation between mortality and level of economic development. Popul Stud (Camb) 1975;29:231–48. [PubMed]
24. Deaton A. Health, inequality, and economic development. J Econ Lit. 2003;41:113–58.
25. Thompson WS. Population. Am J Sociol. 1929;34:959–75.
26. Omran AR. The epidemiologic transition: a theory of the epidemiology of population change. Milbank Mem Fund Q. 1971;49:509–38. [PubMed] 27. Omran AR. The epidemiologic transition theory: a preliminary update. J Trop Pediatr. 1983;29:305–16. [PubMed] 28. Caldwell JC. Health transition: the cultural, social and behavioural determinants of health in the third world. Soc Sci Med. 1993;36:125–35. [PubMed]
29. Barnes DF. Population growth, wood fuels, and resource problems in sub-Saharan Africa. In: Acsadi G, Johnson-Acsadi G, Bulatao R, editors. Population growth and reproduction in sub-Saharan Africa; a World Bank Symposium; Washington, DC. 1990.
30. Leach G. The energy transition. Energy Policy. 1992;20:116–23.
31. Wilkinson P, Smith KR, Joffe M, Haines A. A global perspective on energy: health effects and injustices. Lancet. 2007;370:965–78. [PubMed]
32. Pachauri S, Jiang L. The household energy transition in India and China. Energy Policy. 2008;36:4022–35.
33. Wilkinson P, Smith KR, Davies M, et al. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: household energy. Lancet. 2009;374:1917–29. [PubMed]
34. Button J. Transport, the environment and sustainable development. E&FN Spon; London: 1993.
35. Bloom DE, Canning D. The Preston Curve 30 years on: still sparking fires. Int J Epidemiol. 2007;36:498–99. [PubMed]
36. McKeown T. The role of medicine: dream, mirage, or nemesis. Nuffield Provincial Hospitals Trust; London: 1976.
37. McKeown T. The modern rise of population. Edward Arnold; London: 1976.
38. Kunitz SJ. Samuel Preston’s ‘The changing relation between mortality and level of economic development’ Int J Epidemiol. 2007;36:491–92. [PubMed] 39. Mackenbach JP. The epidemiologic transition theory. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1994;48:329–31. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 40. Wolleswinkel-van den Bosch JH, Looman CWN, Van Poppel FWA, Mackenbach JP. Cause-specific mortality trends in The Netherlands, 1875-1992: a formal analysis of the epidemiologic transition. Int J Epidemiol. 1997;26:772–81. [PubMed] 41. Caldwell JC. Population health in transition. Bull World Health Organ. 2001;79:159–60. [PubMed] 42. Gage TB. Are modern environments really bad for us?: revisiting the demographic and epidemiologic transitions. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2005;48(suppl 41):96–117. [PubMed] 43. Olshansky SJ, Ault AB. The fourth stage of the epidemiologic transition: the age of delayed degenerative diseases. Milbank Q. 1986;64:355–91. [PubMed] 44. Feinleib M. The epidemiologic transition model: accomplishments and challenges. Ann Epidemiol. 2008;18:865–67. [PubMed]
45. Salomon JA, Murray CJL. The epidemiologic transition revisited: compositional models for causes of death by age and sex. Popul Dev Rev. 2002;28:205–28.
46. Olshansky SJ, Carnes B, Rogers RG, Smith L. Infectious diseases— new and ancient threats to world health. Popul Bull. 1997;52:1–52. [PubMed]
47. Barrett R, Kuzawa CW, McDade T, Armegalos GJ. Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases: the third epidemiologic transition. Annu Rev Anthropol. 1998;27:247–71.
48. Cohen ML. Resurgent and emergent disease in a changing world. Br Med Bull. 1998;54:523–32. [PubMed]
49. Wahdan MH. The epidemiological transition. East Med Health H. 1996;2:8–20.
50. Smallman-Raynor M, Phillips D. Late stages of epidemiological transition: health status in the developed world. Health Place. 1999;5:209–22. [PubMed] 51. Rogers RG, Hackenberg R. Extending epidemiologic transition theory: a new stage. Soc Biol. 1987;34:234–43. [PubMed]
52. Frenk J, Bobadilla JL, Sepulveda J, Lopez Cervantes M. Health transition in middle-income countries: new challenges for health care. Health Policy Plan. 1989;4:29–39.
53. Stern D, Common M. Is there an Environmental Kuznets Curve for Sulfur? J Environ Econ Manage. 2001;41:162–78.
54. McGranahan G, Jacobi P, Songsore J. Citizens at risk: from urban sanitation to sustainable cities. Earthscan Ltd; London: 2001.
55. Barnes DF, Krutilla K, Hyde WF. The urban household energy transition: social and environmental impacts in the developing world. Earthscan Ltd; London: 2005.
56. Howden-Chapman P, Viggers H, Chapman R, O’Dea D, Free S, O’Sullivan K. Warm homes: drivers of the demand for heating in the residential sector in New Zealand. Energy Policy. 2009;37:3387–99.
57. Caballero B, Popkin B. The nutrition transition: diet and disease in the developing world. Academic Press; London: 2002.
58. Wells JCK. Maternal capital and the metabolic ghetto: an evolutionary perspective on the transgenerational basis of health inequalities. Am J Hum Biol. 2010;22:1–17. [PubMed] 59. Hanson M, Gluckman PD. Developmental origins of noncommunicable disease: population and public health implications. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;94:1754–58. [PubMed] 60. Ramaraj R, Alpert JS. Indian poverty and cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol. 2008;102:102–06. [PubMed] 61. Diamond J. Medicine: diabetes in India. Nature. 2011;469:478–79. [PubMed]
62. Montgomery MR. Urban poverty and health in developing countries. Population Reference Bureau; Washington DC: 2009.
63. Stephens C. Healthy cities or unhealthy islands? The health and social implications of urban inequality. Environ Urban. 1996;8:9–30.
64. Sharp D. What transition means for India’s city poor. J Urban Health. 2008;85:1–2. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 65. Heuveline P, Guillot M, Gwatkin DR. The uneven tides of the health transition. Soc Sci Med. 2002;55:313–22. [PubMed]
66. Martinez J, Mboup G, Sliuzas R, Stein A. Trends in urban and slum indicators across developing world cities, 1990-2003. Habitat Int. 2008;32:86–108.
67. Jaine R, Baker M, Kamalesh V. Acute rheumatic fever associated with household crowding in a developed country. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011;30:1–5. [PubMed] 68. Baker M, Das D, Venugopal K, Howden-Chapman P. Tuberculosis associated with household crowding in a developed country. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2008;62:715–21. [PubMed] 69. Thompson C, Kinmonth AL, Stevens L, et al. Effects of a clinical-practice guideline and practice-based education on detection and outcome of depression in primary care: Hampshire Depression Project randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2000;355:185–91. [PubMed] 70. Baker MG, Barnard LT, Kvalsvig A, et al. Increasing incidence of serious infectious diseases and inequalities in New Zealand: a national epidemiological study. Lancet. 2012;379:1112–19. [PubMed]
71. Monteiro CA, Conde WL, Popkin B. Trends in under- and overnutrition in Brazil. In: Caballero B, Popkin B, editors. The nutrition transition: diet and disease in the developing world. Academic Press; London: 2002.
72. CSDH. Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health final report of the commission on social determinants of health. World Health Organization; Geneva: 2008.
73. Sverdlik A. Ill-health and poverty: a literature review on health in informal settlements. Environ Urban. 2011;23:123–55.
74. Harpham T. Urban health research in developing countries: reflections on the last decade. In: Atkinson S, Songsore J, Werna E, editors. Urban health research in developing countries: implications for policy. CAB International; Wallingford Oxon: 1996.
75. Frenk J, Bobadilla JL, Sepulveda J, Lopez Cervantes M. Health transition in middle-income countries: new challenges for health care. Health Policy Plan. 1989;4:29–39.
76. Szreter S. The importance of social intervention in Britain’s mortality decline c. 1850-1914: a re-interpretation of the role of public health. Soc Hist Med. 1988;1:1–37.
77. Szreter S. Rethinking McKeown: the relationship between public health and social change. Am J Public Health. 2002;92:722–25. [PubMed] 78. Burström B, Macassa G, Oberg L, Bernhardt E, Smedman L. Equitable child health interventions: the impact of improved water and sanitation on inequalities in child mortality in Stockholm, 1878 to 1925. Am J Public Health. 2005;95:208–16. [PubMed]
79. Troesken W. Water, race and disease. the MIT Press; Cambridge, MA: 2004.
80. Szreter S. Health and Wealth: studies in history and policy. University of Rochester Press; Rochester NY: 2005.
81. WHO Environmental burden of disease associated with inadequate housing. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe; Bonn: 2011.
82. Hancock T. The evolution, impact and significance of the healthy cities/healthy communities movement. J Public Health Policy. 1993;14:5–18. [PubMed]
83. Tsouros A. Healthy Cities Project: a project becomes a movement. World Health Organization; Copenhagen-Milan: 1990.
84. Ashton J. Healthy cities: WHO’s new public health initiatives. Health Promot. 1986;1:319–24.
85. Kenzer M. Healthy cities: a guide to the literature. Environ Urban. 1999;11:201–20.
91. Backman G, Hunt P, Khosla R, et al. Health systems and the right to health: an assessment of 194 countries. Lancet. 2008;372:2047–85. [PubMed]
93. Duhl L. Healthy Cities and the Built Environment. Built Environ. 2005;31:356–61.
94. Ritsatakis A. Equity and social determinants of health at a city level. Health Promot Int. 2009;24:81–90. [PubMed] 95. WHO. Regional Office for Europe [accessed Sept 27, 2011];City leadership for health: summary evaluation of Phase IV of the World Health Organization. European Healthy Cities Network. 2008 :20. http://www.euro.who.int/document/E91886.pdf. 96. de Leeuw E, Skovgaard T. Utility-driven evidence for healthy cities: problems with evidence generation and application. Soc Sci Med. 2005;61:1331–41. [PubMed] 97. Harpham T, Burton S, Blue I. Healthy city projects in developing countries: the first evaluation. Health Promot Int. 2001;16:111–25. [PubMed]
98. Ritsatakis A, Makara P. Gaining health: analysis of policy development in European countries for tackling noncommunicable diseases. Bull World Health Organ. 2009;12:188.
99. Takano T. Healthy Cities and Urban Policy Research. Spon Press; London: 2003.
100. Goumans D, Springett J. From rhetoric to reality: barriers faced by health for all initiatives. Soc Sci Med. 1997;63:179–88. [PubMed]
101. Werna E, Harpham S. Urban health research in developing countries: implications for policy. CAB International; Wallingford Oxon: 1996.
102. Boyce T, Patel S. The Health Impacts of Spatial Planning Decisions. The King’s Fund; 2009.
103. Hancock T, Duhl L., WHO Healthy Cities project: a guide to assessing Healthy Cities. FADL Publishers; Copenhagen: 1988.
104. Barton H. Land use planning and health and well-being. Land Use Policy. 2009;26:115–23.
105. Capon A, Thompson S. Planning for the health of people and planet: an Australian perspective. Plann Theory Pract. 2010;11:109–13.
106. SPAHG Steps to Healthy Planning: Proposals for Action. SPAHG; London: 2011.
107. Petersen A. The healthy city, expertise, and the regulation of space. Health Place. 1996;2:157–65.
108. Barton H, Grant M. A health map for the local human habitat. J R Soc Promot Health. 2006;126:252–53. [PubMed]
109. van Kamp I, Keideleijer K, Marsman G, de Hollander A. Urban environmental quality and human well-being: towards a conceptual framework and demarcation of concepts: a literature study. Landsc Urban Plan. 2003;65:5–18.
110. Northridge ME, Sclar ED, Biswas P. Sorting out the connections between the built environment and health: a conceptual framework for navigating pathways and planning healthy cities. J Urban Health. 2003;80:556–68. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 111. Batty M. The size, scale, and shape of cities. Science. 2008;319:769–71. [PubMed]
112. Allen PM. Cities and Regions as Self-Organizing Systems: Models of Complexity. Gordon and Breach Science Publishers; Amsterdam: 1997.
113. Dennis K, Urry J. After the car. Polity; Cambridge: 2009.
114. Glouberman S, Gemar M, Campsie P, et al. A Framework for Improving Health in Cities: a Discussion Paper. J Urban Health. 2006;83:325–38. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 115. Rose G. Sick individuals and sick populations. Int J Epidemiol. 2001;30:427–32. discussion 433-34. [PubMed]
116. CSDH Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Final Report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. WHO; Geneva: 2008.
117. Grimm NB, Faeth SH, Golubiewski NE, et al. Global change and the ecology of cities. Science. 2008;319:756–60. [PubMed]
118. Prigogine I, Nicolis G. Self-Organization in Non-Equilibrium Systems. John Wiley and Sons; New York: 1977.
119. Ashton J. Healthy cities: WHO’s New Public Health initiative. Health Promot. 1986;1:319–24.
120. Duhl L. The healthy city: its function and its future. Health Promot. 1986;1:55–60.
121. Sterman JD. Business dynamics: systems thinking and modeling for a complex world. 2000
123. UN-Habitat Water and Sanitation in the World’s Cities. Local action for global goals, Earthscan; London: 2003.
124. Cotton A, Tayler K., Services for the Urban Poor Guidelines for Policymakers. Planners and Engineers, Water, Engineering and Development Centre. Loughborough University; 2000.
125. WHO Water, Sanitation and Hygiene. 2004.
126. COHRE. WaterAid. SDC. UN-HABITAT Sanitation: a human rights imperative. Centre on Housing Rights and Evictions. Right to Water Programme; Geneva: 2008.
127. WHO-UNICEF Progress on sanitation and drinking-water: update. WHO; Geneva: 2010.
128. UNDP Beyond scarcity: power, poverty and the global water crisis. Human Development Report. UNDP; New York: 2006.
130. WUP Better water and sanitation for the urban poor. Good practice from Sub-Saharan Africa. World Bank; Abidjan: 2003. Water utility partnership for capacity building. Water and Sanitation Program.
131. WSP The Mumbai Slum Sanitation Program. Partnering with Communities for Sustainable Sanitation in a Megalopolis. Water and Sanitation Program South Asia. The World Bank; Delhi: 2006.
132. McFarlane C. Sanitation in Mumbai’s informal settlements: state, slum, and infrastructure. Environment and Planning. 2008;40:88–107.
133. Nickson A. The public-private mix in urban water supply. Int Rev Admin Sci. 1997;63:165–86.
134. Allen A, Dávila JD, Hofmann P. Governance of water and sanitation for the peri-urban poor: a framework for understanding and action in metropolitan regions. Development Planning Unit; UCL, London: 2006.
135. Allen A, Hofmann P. Moving down the ladder: Governance and sanitation that works for the urban poor; IRC Symposium on Urban Sanitation; The Netherlands. 2008.
136. Schaub-Jones D. Sanitation partnerships: can partnership make a difference to the urban sanitation challenge? BPD Sanitation. London: 2006.
137. WSP The case for marketing sanitation. Water and Sanitation Program. World Bank; Nairobi: 2004.
138. Joshi D, Fawcett B, Mannan F. Health, hygiene and appropriate sanitation: experiences and perceptions of the urban poor. Environ Urban. 2011;23:91–111.
139. Scott P. Unbundling Tenure Issues for Urban Sanitation Development. University of Loughborough; UK: 2011. Unpublished PhD dissertation.
140. UN-Habitat Rental Housing: an essential option for the urban poor in developing countries. UN-Habitat; Nairobi: 2003.
141. Burra S, Patel S, Kerr T. Community-designed, built and managed toilet blocks in Indian cities. Environ Urban. 2003;15:11–32.
142. WHO Guidelines for the safe use of wastewater, excreta and greywater. Wastewater use in agriculture. Wastewater and Excreta Use in Aquaculture. WHO; Geneva: 2006.
143. Cofie OO, Kranjac-Berisavljevic G, Drechsel P. The use of human waste for peri-urban agriculture in Northern Ghana. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems. 2005;20:73–80.
144. Corcoran E, Nellemann C, Baker E, Bos R, Osborn D, Savelli H. Sick Water? The central role of wastewater management in sustainable development. A rapid response assessment, United Nations Environment Programme. UN-HABITAT, GRID; Arendal: 2010.
145. Kummerer K. Pharmaceuticals in the environment: sources, fate, effects, and risks. Springer-Verlag; 2008.
146. Ingallinella AM, Sanguinetti G, Koottatep T, Montanger A, Strauss M. The challenge of faecal sludge management in urban areas—strategies, regulations and treatment options. Water Sci Technol. 2002;46:285–94. [PubMed]
147. UN-HABITAT Global atlas of excreta. Wastewater sludge, and biosolids management: moving forward the sustainable and welcome uses of a global resource. UN-Habitat; Nairobi: 2008.
148. WSP The Mumbai Slum Sanitation Program. Partnering with Communities for Sustainable Sanitation in a Megalopolis. Water and Sanitation Program South Asia. The World Bank; Delhi: 200.
149. Campbell HW. Sludge management - future issues and trends. Water Sci Technol. 2000;41:1–8.
150. WRC RPA. Environmental, economic and social impacts of the use of sewage sludge on land. Milieu Ltd; 2008. Unpublished final Report. Part I.
151. Drechsel P, Scott CA, Raschid-Sally L, Redwood M, Bahri A. Wastewater irrigation and health: assessing and mitigating risk in low-income countries. Earthscan; London: 2010.
152. Brook R, Dávila JD. The peri-urban interface: a tale of two cities. University of Bangor, University College London; 2000.
153. Schübeler P, Wehrle K, Christen J., SDC Collaborative Programme on Municipal Solid Waste Management in Low-income Countries Conceptual framework for municipal solid waste management in low-income countries. UNDP/UNCHS (Habitat).World Bank; 1996. Working Paper No. 9.
154. World Health Organization Health in the green economy: health co-benefits of climate change mitigation, housing sector. WHO; Geneva: [accessed Sept 27, 2011]. 2011. http://www.who.int/hia/hgehousing.pdf.
155. International Energy Agency The World Energy Outlook. OECD/IEA; Paris: 2008.
156. Pachauri S, Jiang L. The household energy transition in India and China. Energy Policy. 2008;36:4022–35.
157. Haines A, McMichael AJ, Smith KR, et al. Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: overview and implications for policy makers. Lancet. 2009;374:2104–14. [PubMed]
158. Smith KR, Mehta S, Maeusezahl-Feuz M. Indoor air pollution from household use of solid fuels. In: Ezzati M, Lopez AD, Rodgers A, Murray CJ, editors. Comparative quantification of health risks. Global and regional burden of disease attributable to selected major risk factors. World Health Organization; Geneva: 2004. pp. 1435–94.
159. WHO Fuel for life: household energy and health. Geneva: 2006.
160. Zhang JJ, Smith KR. Household air pollution from coal and biomass fuels in China: measurements, health impacts, and interventions. Environ Health Perspect. 2007;115:848–55. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
161. Wang X, Smith KR. Secondary Benefits of Greenhouse Gas Control: Health Impacts in China. Environ Sci Technol. 1999;33:3056–61.
163. Howden-Chapman P, Pierse N, Nicholls S, et al. Effects of improved home heating on asthma in community dwelling children: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2008;337:a1411. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 164. Ye Y, Zulu E, Mutisya M, Orindi B, Emina J, Kyobutungi C. Seasonal pattern of pneumonia mortality among under-five children in Nairobi’s informal settlements. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;81:770–75. [PubMed] 165. Wilkinson P, Smith KR, Beevers S, Tonne C, Oreszczyn T. Energy, energy efficiency, and the built environment. Lancet. 2007;370:1175–87. [PubMed]
166. Satterthwaite DE, Munn T. Environmental health and urban poverty and overcrowding. Encyclopedia of global environmental change. John Wiley & Sons; Chichester: 2000.
167. UNEP Towards a GREEN economy: pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication. 2011
168. Housing Stock CLG England - Dwelling Stock estimates, England, 2009. London: 2010.
169. Greater London Authority GL The London Plan: Spatial development strategy for Greater London. Consultation draft replacement plan. London: 2009.
170. HM Government Approved Document F - Ventilation. 2010
171. The Energy and Climate Change Committee Fuel Poverty - Fifth report of session 2009-2010. House of Commons; London: 2010.
172. Wilkinson P, Pattenden S, Armstrong B, et al. Vulnerability to winter mortality in elderly people in Britain: population based study. BMJ. 2004;329:647. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
173. Wilkinson P, Landon M, Armstrong B, Stevenson S, McKee M. Cold comfort: the social and environmental determinants of excess winter death in England, 1986-1996. Joseph Rowntree Foundation; York: 2001.
174. Healy JD. Excess winter mortality in Europe: a cross country analysis identifying key risk factors. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2003;57:784–89. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
175. Howden-Chapman P, Viggers H, Chapman H, O’Sullivan K, Telfar-Barnard K, Lloyd B. Tackling cold housing and fuel poverty in New Zealand: a review of policies, research and health impacts. Energy Policy, Fuel Poverty comes of age: 21 years of research into fuel poverty. 2011
176. Panter JR, Jones A. Attitudes and the environment as determinants of active travel in adults: what do and don’t we know? J Phys Act Health. 2010;7:551–61. [PubMed] 177. Giles-Corti B. People or places: what should be the target? J Sci Med Sport. 2006;9:357–66. [PubMed] 178. Hallal PC, Azevedo MR, Reichert FF, Siqueira FV, Araújo CL, Victora CG. Who, when, and how much? Epidemiology of walking in a middle-income country. Am J Prev Med. 2005;28:156–61. [PubMed] 179. Hallal PC, Bertoldi AD, Gonçalves H, Victora CG. Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle and associated factors in adolescents 10 to 12 years of age. Cad Saude Publica. 2006;22:1277–87. [PubMed] 180. Florindo AA, Guimarães VV, Cesar CLG, Barros MB, Alves MC, Goldbaum M. Epidemiology of leisure, transportation, occupational, and household physical activity: prevalence and associated factors. J Phys Act Health. 2009;6:625–32. [PubMed]
181. Brand P, Dávila JD. Mobility innovation at the urban margins: Medellín’s Metrocables. City. 2011;15:647–61.
182. Foster S, Giles-Corti B. The built environment, neighborhood crime and constrained physical activity: an exploration of inconsistent findings. Prev Med. 2008;47:241–51. [PubMed] 183. Carver A, Timperio A, Crawford D. Playing it safe: the influence of neighbourhood safety on children’s physical activity. A review. Health Place. 2008;14:217–27. [PubMed] 184. Amorim TC, Azevedo MR, Hallal PC. Physical activity levels according to physical and social environmental factors in a sample of adults living in South Brazil. J Phys Act Health. 2010;7(suppl 2):S204–12. [PubMed] 185. Butler EN, Ambs AM, Reedy J, Bowles HR. Identifying GIS measures of the physical activity built environment through a review of the literature. J Phys Act Health. 2011;8(suppl 1):S91–97. [PubMed] 186. Saelens BE, Handy SL. Built environment correlates of walking: a review. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(suppl):S550–66. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 187. Brunekreef B, Holgate ST. Air pollution and health. Lancet. 2002;360:1233–42. [PubMed] 188. Frumkin H. Urban sprawl and public health. Public Health Rep. 2002;117:201–17. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 189. Woodcock J, Banister D, Edwards P, Prentice AM, Roberts I. Energy and transport. Lancet. 2007;370:1078–88. [PubMed] 190. Ross NA, Tremblay S, Khan S, Crouse D, Tremblay M, Berthelot J-M. Body mass index in urban Canada: neighborhood and metropolitan area effects. Am J Public Health. 2007;97:500–08. [PubMed] 191. Lopez R. Urban sprawl and risk for being overweight or obese. Am J Public Health. 2004;94:1574–79. [PubMed] 192. Parra DC, Hoehner CM, Hallal PC, et al. Perceived environmental correlates of physical activity for leisure and transportation in Curitiba, Brazil. Prev Med. 2010 [PubMed] 193. Ross NA, Tremblay S, Khan S, Crouse D, Tremblay M, Berthelot J-M. Body mass index in urban Canada: neighborhood and metropolitan area effects. Am J Public Health. 2007;97:500–08. [PubMed] 194. Lopez R. Urban sprawl and risk for being overweight or obese. Am J Public Health. 2004;94:1574–79. [PubMed] 195. Gomez LF, Sarmiento OL, Parra DC, et al. Characteristics of the built environment associated with leisure-time physical activity among adults in Bogotá, Colombia: a multilevel study. J Phys Act Health. 2010;7(suppl 2):S196–203. [PubMed]
196. Cervero RB, Sarmiento OL, Jacoby E. Influences of built environments on walking and cycling: lessons from Bogotá International Journal of Sustainable Transportation. 2009;3:203–26.
197. Montes F. Análisis económico de cuatro programas de Ciclovía: Los beneficios de estos programas superan sus costos; Fifth Meeting of the Network of Ciclovias Recreativas; Mexico City. 2010.
198. Sarmiento OL, Torres A, Jacoby E, Pratt M, Schmid TL, Stierling G. The Ciclovía-Recreativa: A mass-recreational program with public health potential. J Phys Act Health. 2010;7(suppl 2):S163–80. [PubMed] 199. Sarmiento OL, Schmid TL, Parra DC, et al. Quality of life, physical activity, and built environment characteristics among colombian adults. J Phys Act Health. 2010;7(suppl 2):S181–95. [PubMed] 200. Bauman A. The physical environment and physical activity: moving from ecological associations to intervention evidence. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2005;59:535–36. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
202. Dávila JD. Being a mayor: the view from four Colombian cities. Environ Urban. 2009;21:37–57.
203. Hardoy J, Satterthwaite D. Squatter Citizen. Earthscan; London: 1989.
204. Dávila JD. In: La transformación de Bogotá. Cepeda Ulloa F., editor. Fortalezas de Colombia, Editorial Planeta; Bogotá: 2004. pp. 417–39.
205. Gilbert A, Dávila JD. Bogotá: progress within a hostile environment. In: Dietz HA, David, Myers J, editors. Capital city politics in Latin America: democratization and empowerment. Rienner L Publishers; Boulder: 2002. pp. 29–63.
206. Gomez LF, Sarmiento OL, Parra DC, et al. Characteristics of the built environment associated with leisure-time physical activity among adults in Bogotá, Colombia: a multilevel study. J Phys Act Health. 2010;7(suppl 2):S196–203. [PubMed]
207. Wright L, Montezuma R. Reclaiming public space: the economic, environmental and social impacts of Bogotá’s transformation. UCL; 2004.
208. Gilbert A. Bus rapid transit: is transmilenio a miracle cure? Transp Rev. 2008;28:439–67.
210. Montes F. Análisis económico de cuatro programas de Ciclovía: los beneficios de estos programas superan sus costos; Fifth Meeting of the Network of Ciclovias Recreativas; Mexico City. 2010.
211. Echeverri J. The economics of Transmilenio, a mass transit system for Bogotá Economía. 2005;5:151–96.
212. UN. UN Habitat [accessed April 17, 2012];2011 cities and climate change: global report on human settlements 2011—abridged report. http://reliefweb.int/node/396347.
213. Cities and Climate Change. Earthscan; London: 2011.
214. McMichael AJ, Wilkinson P, Kovats RS, et al. International study of temperature, heat and urban mortality: the ‘ISOTHURM’ project. Int J Epidemiol. 2008;37:1121–31. [PubMed]
215. Oke TR. City size and the urban heat island. Atmos Environ. 1973;7:769–73.
216. Arnfield AJ. Two decades of urban climate research: a review of turbulence, exchanges of energy and water, and the urban heat island. Int J Climatol. 2003;23:1–26.
217. Oke TR. Boundary layer climates. Routledge; 1987.
218. Taha H. Urban climates and heat islands: albedo, evapotranspiration, and anthropogenic heat. Energy Build. 1997;25:99–103.
219. Armstrong BG, Chalabi Z, Fenn B, et al. Association of mortality with high temperatures in a temperate climate: England and Wales. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2011;65:340–45. [PubMed]
220. Oke TR. The Heat island characteristics of the urban boundary layer: Characteristics, causes and effects. In: Cermak JE, Davenport AG, Plate EJ, Viegas DX, editors. Wind Climate in Cities. Kluwer Academic; Netherlands: 1995. pp. 81–107.
221. Knowlton K, Hogrefe C, Lynn B, Rosenzweig C, Rosenthal J, Kinney P. Impacts of Heat and Ozone on Mortality Risk in the New York City Metropolitan Region Under a Changing Climate. Advances in Global Change Research. 2008;30:143–60.
222. Angel S. The dimensions of global urban expansion: estimates and projections for all countries: 2000-2050. Prog Plann. 2011;75:1–107.
223. Hamilton IG, Davies M, Steadman P, Stone A, Ridley I, Evans S. The significance of the anthropogenic heat emissions of London’s buildings: a comparison against captured shortwave solar radiation. Build Environ. 2009;44:807–17.
224. Ichinose T, Shimodozono K, Hanaki K. Impact of anthropogenic heat on urban climate in Tokyo. Atmos Environ. 1999;33:3897–909.
225. Bohnenstengel SI, Evans S, Clark PA, Belcher SE. Simulations of the London urban heat island. Q J R Meteorol Soc. 2011;137:1625–40.
226. Kovats RS, Hajat S. Heat stress and public health: a critical review. Annu Rev Public Health. 2008;29:41–55. [PubMed] 227. O’Neill MS, Ebi KL. Temperature extremes and health: impacts of climate variability and change in the United States. J Occup Environ Med. 2009;51:13–25. [PubMed]
228. Mavrogianni A, Davies M, Batty M, et al. The comfort, energy and health implications of London’s urban heat island. Build Serv Eng Res Tech. 2011;32:35–52.
229. Oikonomou E, Davies M, Mavrogianni A, Biddulph P, Wilkinson P, Kolokotroni M. Modelling the relative importance of the urban heat island and the thermal quality of dwellings for overheating in London. Building and Environment. in press.
230. Greater London Authority Managing risks and increasing resilience: The Mayor’s climate change adaptation strategy. Greater London Authority; 2011.
231. Hamilton IG, Davies M, Gauthier S. London’s Urban Heat Island: A multiscaled assessment framework. ICE Urban Design and Planning. 2012 published online Jan 1. DOI:10.1680/udap.10.00046.
234. The Brown Agenda: Environment and Development in Cato Manor. Indicator South Africa. 13:84–88.
235. Sommers P, Smit J. Promoting Urban Agriculture: Strategy Framework for Planners in North America. Europe and Asia: 1994.
236. Hanna AK, Oh P. Rethinking urban poverty: a look at community gardens. Bull Sci Technol Soc. 2000;20:207–16.
237. Waliczek TM, Zajicek JM. School gardening: Improving environmental attitudes of children through hands-on learning. J Environ Horticult. 1999;17:180–84.
238. Reynolds LR, Anderson JW. Practical office strategies for weight management of the obese diabetic individual. Endocr Pract. 2004;10:153–59. [PubMed] 239. Beitz R, Dören M. Physical activity and postmenopausal health. J Br Menopause Soc. 2004;10:70–74. [PubMed] 240. Kien CL, Chiodo AR. Physical activity in middle school-aged children participating in a school-based recreation program. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157:811–15. [PubMed] 241. Wood DM, Brennan AL, Philips BJ, Baker EH. Effect of hyperglycaemia on glucose concentration of human nasal secretions. Clin Sci (Lond) 2004;106:527–33. [PubMed]
242. Morgan K. Feeding the City: the Challenge of Urban Food Planning. Int Plann Stud. 2010;14:341–48.
243. Lathrop Pack C. The War Garden Victorious. Press of JB Lippincott Co; Philadelphia: 2009.
244. Enriquez LJ. Cuba’s new agricultural revolution: the transformation of food crop production in contemporary Cuba. Food First Institute for Food and Development Policy. 2000 Development Report no.14, USA.
245. Pinderhughes RR. Urban Agriculture in Havana. San Francisco State University; Cuba: 2000.
246. Murch S. The Vegetable Gardeners Of Havana. BBC Two’s Future of Food. 2009
247. Asomani-Boateng R, Reusing HM. Organic Solid Waste in Urban Farming in African Cities - A Challenge for Urban Planners. Third World Plan Rev. 1999;4:21.
249. Obosu-Mensah K. Changes to official attitudes to urban agriculture in Accra. African Studies Quarterly. 2002;6:19–32.
250. Campbell M, Campbell I. A Survey of Allotment waiting lists in England. Transition Town West Kirby with National Society of Allotment and Leisure Gardeners; UK: 2009.
253. Mogk J. Urban Agriculture: good food, good money, good idea! OECD. 2010
254. Bethany M. Urban Agriculture Report. Region of Waterloo Growth Management Strategy, Ontario; Canada: 2005.
256. Lim CJ, Liu E. Smartcities and Eco-warriors. Routledge; 2010.
257. Sanderson I. Complexity, 'practical rationality’ and evidence-based policy making. Pol Polit. 2006;34:115–32.
258. Gerrits L. A co-evolutionary revision of decision-making processes: an analysis of port extensions in Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands. In: Teisman G, van Buuren A, Gerrits L, editors. Managing Complex Governance Systems: dynamics, self-organization and coevolution in public investments. Taylor & Francis; London: 2009. pp. 309–42.
259. Mayntz R. Governing failures and the problem of governability: some comments on a theoretical paradigm. In: Kooiman J, editor. Modern Governance: new government-society interactions. Sage; London: 1993. p. 14.
260. Kauffman S. At Home in the Universe: the search for laws of complexity. Penguin; London: 1995.
261. Room G. Complexity, Institutions and Public Policy Cheltenham. Vol. 239. Edward Elgar; UK: 2011.
262. Schwandt TA. Evaluation as practical hermeneutics. Evaluation. 1997;3:69–83.
263. Majone G. Evidence, argument and persuasion in the policy process. Yale UP; New Have, CT: 1989.
264. Costongs C, Springett J. Towards a Framework for the Evaluation of Health-related Policies in Cities. Evaluation. 1997;3:345–62.
265. Nonaka I. A dynamics theory of organizational knowledge creation. Organ Sci. 1994;15:14–37.
266. Forester J. The Deliberative Practitioner: encouraging participatory planning processes. MIT Press; Cambridge, MS: 1999.
267. Wenger E. Communities of practice: learning, meanings, and identity. Cambridge University Press; 2007.
268. de Leeuw E. Evidence for Healthy Cities: reflections on practice, method and theory. Health Promot Int. 2009;24(suppl 1):i19–36. [PubMed]
269. Dryzek J. Discursive Democracy: politics, policy and political science. CUP; Cambridge: 1990.
270. Innes J, Booher D. Planning with Complexity: an introduction to collaborative rationality for public policy. Routledge; London: 2010.
271. Baum FE, Sanders DM. Ottawa 25 years on: a more radical agenda for health equity is still required. Health Promot Int. 2011;26(suppl 2):ii253–57. [PubMed]
272. Minkler M, Wallerstein N. Improving health through community organization and community building: a health education perspective. In: Minkler M, editor. Community Organizing and Community Building for Health. Rutgers University Press; New Brunswick, NJ: 1998.
273. Wallerstein N., Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe [accessed June 27, 2011];What is the Evidence on Effectiveness of Empowerment to Improve Health? Health Evidence Network Report. 2006 http://www.euro.who.int/Document/E88086.pdf.
274. WHO Urban HEART. WHO; Kobe: 2010.
275. Byrne J, Wolch J, Zhang J. Planning for environmental justice in an urban national park. J Environ Plann Manage. 2009;52:365–92.
276. Tzoulas K. Promoting ecosystem and human health in urban areas using Green Infrastructure: a literature review. Landsc Urban Plan. 2007;81:167–78.
277. Bedimo-Rung AL, Mowen AJ, Cohen DA. The significance of parks to physical activity and public health: a conceptual model. Am J Prev Med. 2005;28(suppl 2):159–68. [PubMed]
278. Maller C, Townsend M, Brown P, St Leger L. Healthy parks, healthy people: the health benefits of contact with nature in a park context: a review of current literature. Parks Victoria, Deakin University Faculty of Health and Behavioural Sciences; Melbourne: 2002.
279. De Sousa C. Turning brownfields into green space in the City of Toronto. Landsc Urban Plan. 2003;62:181–98.
282. Yokohari M, Amati M. Nature in the city, city in the nature: case studies of the restoration of urban nature in Tokyo. Japan and Toronto, Canada. Landscape Ecol Eng. 2005;1:53–59.
283. Whitzman C. [accessed Oct 15, 2010];Safer Space in Toronto. Urban Plan Int. 2005 19:58–61. [in Chinese]; English version published as a special report by York University Centre for Urban Studies. 2005; 121-130. www.arts.yorku.ca/sosc/urbanst/publications.html.
284. Burns J, Bond A. The consideration of health in land use planning: barriers and opportunities. Environ Impact Assess Rev. 2008;28:184–97.
285. Kørnov L. Strategic Environmental Assessment as catalyst of healthier spatial planning: the Danish guidance and practice. Environ Impact Assess Rev. 2009;29:60–65.