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Cell-based indirect immunofluorescence assay (CIIFA) for aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody detection with AQP4-transfected HEK 293 cell line as a substrate. Representative samples showing an intensity of w+ to 4+ are provided above. W+ was assigned when the intensity of fluorescence was less than 1+. Of note, fluorescence was also observed in round cells, which might not reflect healthy, viable HEK cells during slide preparation.