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From:
Published online 2012 August 8. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-10-86

Table 1

Tumor marker characteristics.

Tumor markerClinical use in gynecological oncologyProduction site in normal adultProduction site during pregnancyMolecular weight
Carbohydrate antigen 15-3Breast cancerGlandular epitheliaUncertain
(maternal mammary gland epithelium? placenta?)
290 kDa
Squamous cell carcinoma antigenCervical squamous cell cancerSquamous epithelia (both benign and malignant)Uncertain
(fetus?)
42 kDa
Carbohydrate antigen 125Non-mucinous ovarian cancerStructures derived from the celomic epithelium (such as endocervix, endometrium, and fallopian tube) and in tissues developed from mesothelial cells (such as pleura, pericardium and peritoneum)Decidua and amnion cells200 to 250 kDa
Inhibin BGranulosa cell tumors
(some (mucinous) epithelial ovarian tumors)
Granulosa and theca cells (member of the transforming growth factor-β family)Granulosa and theca cellsMonomer 15 kDa, homodimer 25 kDa
Anti-Müllerian hormoneGranulosa cell tumorsGranulosa cells of ovarian follicles (member of the transforming growth factor-β family)Sertoli cells of male fetus, for regression of Müllerian ducts140 kDa
Lactate dehydrogenaseGerm cell tumorsCell cytoplasmCell cytoplasm140 kDa