PMCCPMCCPMCC

Search tips
Search criteria 

Advanced

 
Logo of thijCurrent IssueSee also Cardiovascular Diseases Journal in PMCSubscribeSubmissionsTHI Journal Website
 
Tex Heart Inst J. 2012; 39(4): 557–559.
PMCID: PMC3423301
A Rare Case of Isolated Congenital Right Ventricular Inflow Obstruction due to the Presence of an Intraventricular Muscular Shelf
Giovanni J. Nanna, MS, Michael G. Nanna, MS, Danielle Muchnik, MS, Joseph J. DeRose, MD, FACS, and Seshasayee Narasimhan, MD, MRCP (UK), FRACP
From: Sackler School of Medicine (Ms Muchnik and Mr. G. Nanna), New York, New York 10065; SUNY-Stony Brook School of Medicine (Mr. M. Nanna), Stony Brook, New York 11794; and Divisions of Cardiovascular & Thoracic Surgery (Dr. DeRose) and Cardiology (Dr. Narasimhan), Monte-fiore-Einstein Heart Center, Jack D. Weiler Hospital of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York 10461
A 56-year-old man presented with anasarca and a 40-lb weight gain that had occurred over the course of 3 to 4 weeks. He had a history of permanent atrial fibrillation and a congenital anomaly of the right ventricular inflow tract. This defect consisted of a muscular shelf in the right ventricular inflow tract, which encased the tricuspid subvalvular apparatus in such a manner that it created tricuspid stenosis. The clinical consequences of this anatomic and hemodynamic situation were a massively dilated right atrium, permanent atrial fibrillation, and clinical evidence of right-sided heart failure, including fluid retention and ascites. The patient underwent surgical resection of the muscular shelf, which was followed by progressive resolution of the ascites and fluid retention.
Key words: Anasarca, heart defects, congenital/etiology, hidadenitis, right ventricular obstruction, tricuspid valve/pathology, tricuspid valve stenosis/congenital/therapy
 
Isolated congenital tricuspid valve stenosis is a rare entity: fewer than 20 cases have been described in the medical literature.1 This stenosis is typically associated with an abnormality of the valvular or subvalvular apparatus, or both. Right ventricular (RV) inflow obstruction due to the presence of an intraventricular muscular shelf has never, to our knowledge, been described. We describe the hemodynamic abnormalities discovered preoperatively in one patient by means of 2-dimensional echocar-diography and right-sided cardiac catheterization. We also describe the novel surgical approach that was used to correct this highly unusual problem in a definitive manner.
A 56-year-old man presented with anasarca, severe groin and sacral hidadenitis in the setting of a known tricuspid valve anomaly, a 2-year history of permanent atrial fibrillation, iron-deficiency anemia, and benign hypertrophy of the prostate. His current medications included digoxin 250 μg once daily, ferrous sulfate 325 mg once daily, torsemide 40 mg once daily, thyroxine 100 μg once daily, tamsulosin 0.4 mg once daily, and warfarin (intended to achieve an international normalized ratio [INR] of between 2 and 3, with regular testing). His physical examination was remarkable for anasarca and bilateral crepitations. His initial laboratory results revealed microcytic anemia with hemoglobin of 9.7 g/dL, bilirubin of 2.5 mg/dL, aspartate aminotransferase of 65 U/L, and an INR of 2.7.
Transthoracic echocardiography revealed severe right atrial dilation associated with a diastolic tricuspid gradient that originated at the level of a large muscle bundle just beneath the tricuspid valve (mean gradient, 8 mmHg). The tricuspid valve displayed normal leaflet motion, but there was mild tricuspid regurgitation (Figs. 1—3).
figure 19FF1
Fig. 1 Transthoracic echocardiogram (modified apical view) shows a massively dilated right atrium. Also visible is a muscular shelf at the right ventricular inflow tract, distal to the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve.
figure 19FF2
Fig. 2 Transthoracic color-flow Doppler interrogation from a window similar to that in Figure 1 shows Doppler artifact at the level of the vena contracta (that is, at the narrow orifice below the muscular shelf).
figure 19FF3
Fig. 3 Continuous-wave Doppler shows a diastolic right ventricular inflow gradient.
Cardiac catheterization revealed normal coronary arteries. The right-sided heart study showed a central venous pressure of 20 mmHg with a large V wave of 22 mmHg, a right ventricular pressure of 28/8 mmHg, and a pulmonary artery pressure of 28/18 mmHg. The pulmonary capillary wedge pressure was 11 mmHg with a pulmonary vascular resistance of 144 (dyne · sec)/cm5. The mean tricuspid valve gradient was 8.89 mmHg (Fig. 4).
figure 19FF4
Fig. 4 Simultaneous recording of right ventricular and right atrial pressures shows the presence of a right ventricular inflow gradient (shaded area).
Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed subvalvular tricuspid stenosis and insufficiency, with a hypoplastic but normally contracting RV.
The patient was taken to the operating room for definitive surgical treatment. At operation, the right atrium was seen to be massively dilated and the RV to be small with normal contractility. The tricuspid valve was stenotic: the septal and anterior leaflets were mobile, but the posterior leaflet was fused to the subvalvular structures. There was a large band of muscle beneath the anterior and posterior leaflets, extending 3 cm into the RV cavity and causing severe inflow obstruction (Fig. 5).
figure 19FF5
Fig. 5 Intraoperative photograph shows a large band of muscle beneath the anterior and posterior leaflets, which had been causing severe right ventricular inflow obstruction.
A complete left- and right-sided bipolar radiofrequency maze procedure was performed, and the left atrial appendage was transected and oversewn. The muscle band beneath the tricuspid annulus was found to be heavily calcified and to encase the undersurface of the valve. The inflow obstruction was completely resected, and the valve was replaced with a 29-mm porcine bio-prosthesis (Fig. 6).
figure 19FF6
Fig. 6 Intraoperative photograph shows completed tricuspid valve replacement with a 29-mm porcine bioprosthesis. The inflow obstruction was completely resected.
Postoperatively, the patient remained in sinus rhythm. When a follow-up echocardiogram was performed after surgery, the mean gradient observed across the tricuspid valve was 2 mmHg.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of congenital subvalvular stenosis due to a muscular shelf. Right ventricular inflow stenosis is normally related to the presence of valvular tricuspid stenosis. Isolated tricuspid stenosis can be rheumatic in rare cases,2,3 congenital,3 or of unknown cause.4,5 Right ventricular inflow obstruction can result from valvular abnormalities due to rheumatic heart disease, congenital causes, metabolic or enzymatic abnormalities, and active infective endocarditis.6 Rare causes include carcinoid syndrome, endocarditis, endomyocardial fibrosis, lupus erythematosus, right atrial myxoma, congenital tricus-pid atresia, Fabry disease, and giant blood cysts.
Several conditions can mimic tricuspid stenosis by obstructing flow through the valve. These include supravalvular obstruction from congenital diaphragms, intracardiac or extracardiac tumors, thrombosis or emboli, or large endocarditis vegetations. In addition, other conditions that impair right-sided filling, such as constrictive pericarditis and restrictive cardiomyopathy, can produce similar symptoms and physical findings.
The tricuspid valve leaflets have several embryologic origins. The septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve develops mostly from the inferior endocardial cushion, with a small contribution from the superior cushion. The anterior and posterior tricuspid valve leaflets develop from a shelf of ventricular muscle tissue that extends until the atrioventricular valve junction is reached.7–9 Resorption of that muscle tissue produces normal-appearing valve leaflets and chordae tendineae. Fusion of developing valve-leaflet components results in stenosis (partial fusion) or atresia (complete fusion) of the valve.10,11 Whether muscular tricuspid atresia or well-formed but fused tricuspid valve leaflets develop depends on the embryologic stage at which the aberration takes place.10,11 The classic muscular form of tricuspid atresia develops if the embryologic insult occurs early in gestation. Fused valve leaflets occur if the insult occurs slightly later in gestation. Should valve fusion be incomplete, stenosis of the tricuspid valve develops. In the case presented here, resorption of the muscular shelf was incomplete, which produced leaflet fusion, thereby causing subvalvular tricuspid stenosis.
The surgical correction was approached with the intent of repairing the tricuspid valve. However, as can be seen from the intraoperative photographs, the posterior leaflet was severely scarred, foreshortened, and fused to the annulus. Only the septal and anterior leaflets exhibited mobility—yet both of these leaflets were also restricted by the calcific subannular muscular obstruction, which had foreshortened and fused the subvalvular apparatus in several areas.
Echocardiography provided accurate preoperative views that helped to guide the surgical strategy. The surgical approach used in this case proved successful in eliminating the RV inflow obstruction.
Footnotes
Address for reprints: Seshasayee Narasimhan, MD, MRCP (UK), FRACP, Department of Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, Montefiore-Einstein Heart Center, Jack D. Weiler Hospital of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, 1825 Eastchester Rd., Bronx, NY 10461-2373
E-mail: docsesh/at/gmail.com
1. Lokhandwala YY, Rajani RM, Dalvi BV, Kale PA. Successful balloon valvotomy in isolated congenital tricuspid stenosis. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 1990;13(6):354–6. [PubMed]
2. Gordon AJ, Genkins G, Grishman A, Nabatoff RA. Tricuspid stenosis; report of a case, with hemodynamic studies at tricuspid commissurotomy. Am J Med 1957;22(2):306–14. [PubMed]
3. Killip T 3rd, Lukas DS. Tricuspid stenosis; physiologic criteria for diagnosis and hemodynamic abnormalities. Circulation 1957;16(1):3–13. [PubMed]
4. Krook H, Biorck G, Wulff HB. Tricuspid stenosis and constrictive pericarditis in one patient successfully treated by simultaneous valvulotomy and pericardectomy. Am Heart J 1955;49(3):467–71. [PubMed]
5. Sapirstein W, Baker CB. Isolated tricuspid-valve stenosis. Report of a surgically treated case. N Engl J Med 1963;269:236–40. [PubMed]
6. Waller BF, Howard J, Fess S. Pathology of tricuspid valve stenosis and pure tricuspid regurgitation–Part III. Clin Cardiol 1995;18(4):225–30. [PubMed]
7. Ando M, Santomi G, Takao A. Atresia of tricuspid and mitral orifice: anatomic spectrum and morphogenetic hypothesis. In: Van Praagh R, Takao A, editors. Etiology and morphogenesis of congenital heart disease. Mount Kisco (NY): Futu-ra Publishing Co. Inc.; 1980. p. 421–87.
8. Van Mierop LH, Gessner IH. Pathogenetic mechanisms in congenital cardiovascular malformations. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 1972;15(1):67–85. [PubMed]
9. Wilson AD, Rao PS. Embryology. In: Kambam J, editor. Cardiac anesthesia for infants and children. St. Louis: Mosby; 1994. p. 3–9.
10. Rao PS. Tricuspid atresia. In: Long WA, editor. Fetal and neonatal cardiology. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Co.; 1990. p. 525–40.
11. Rao PS, Alpert BS, Covitz W. Left ventricular function in tricuspid atresia. In: Rao PS, editor. Tricuspid atresia. 2nd ed. Mount Kisco (NY): Futura Publishing Co. Inc.; 1992. p. 24759.
Articles from Texas Heart Institute Journal are provided here courtesy of
Texas Heart Institute