1. Beschta RL, Rhodes JJ, Kauffman JB, Gresswell RE, Minshall GW, et al. (2004) Postfire management on forested public lands of the western United States. Conservation Biology 18: 957–967.
2. Perrings C, Naeem S, Ahrestani F, Bunker DE, Burkill P, et al. (2010) Ecosystem services for 2020. Science 330: 323–324. [PubMed]
3. Kroll AJ, Arnett EB, Altman B (2010) Effects of salvage logging on avian nest survival in beetle-killed forests. Forest Ecology and Management 260: 1599–1606.
4. Bunnell FL, Kremsater LL, Wind E (1999) Managing to sustain vertebrate richness in forests of the Pacific Northwest: relationships within stands. Environmental Reviews 7: 97–146.
5. Arnett EB, Kroll AJ, Duke SD (2010) Avian foraging and nesting use of created snags in intensively-managed forests of western Oregon, USA. Forest Ecology and Management 260: 1773–1779.
6. Binkley CS, Aronow ME, Washburn CL, New D (2005) Global perspectives on intensively managed plantations: implications for the Pacific Northwest. Journal of Forestry 103: 61–64.
7. Berlik MM, Kittredge DB, Foster DR (2002) The illusion of preservation: a global environmental argument for the local production of natural resources. Journal of Biogeography 29: 1557–1568.
8. Hayes JP, Schoenholtz SH, Hartley MJ, Murphy G, Powers RF, et al. (2005) Environmental consequences of intensively managed forest plantations in the Pacific Northwest. Journal of Forestry 103: 83–87.
9. Harrington TB, Wagner RG, Radosevich SR, Walstad JD (1995) Interspecific competition and herbicide injury influence 10-year responses of coastal Douglas-fir and associated vegetation to release treatments. Forest Ecology and Management 76: 55–67.
10. Hagar JC (2007) Wildlife species associated with non-coniferous vegetation in Pacific Northwest conifer forests-a review. Forest Ecology and Management 246: 108–122.
11. Lindh B, Muir PS (2004) Understory vegetation in young Douglas-fir forests: does thinning help restore old-growth composition? Forest Ecology and Management 192: 285–296.
12. Ellis TM, Betts MG (2011) Bird abundance and diversity across a hardwood gradient within early seral plantation forest. Forest Ecology and Management 261: 1372–1381.
13. DeGraaf RM, Yamasaki M (2003) Options for managing early-successional forest and shrubland bird habitats in the northeastern United States. Forest Ecology and Management 185: 179–191.
14. Paquet J-Y, Vandevyvre X, Delahaye L, Rondeux J (2006) Bird assemblages in a mixed woodland–farmland landscape: the conservation value of silviculture-dependent open areas in plantation forest. Forest Ecology and Management 224: 59–70.
15. Enoksson B, Angelstam P, Larsson K (1995) Deciduous forest and resident birds: the problem of fragmentation within a coniferous forest landscape. Landscape Ecology 10: 267–275.
16. Kennedy RSH, Spies TA (2005) Dynamics of hardwood patches in a conifer matrix: 54 years of change in a forested landscape in Coastal Oregon, USA. Biological Conservation 122: 363–374.
17. Spies TA, Johnson KN, Burnett KM, Ohmann JL, McComb BC, et al. (2007) Cumulative ecological and socioeconomic effects of forest policies in Coastal Oregon. Ecological Applications 17: 5–17. [PubMed] 18. Betts MG, Hagar J, Rivers J, Alexander J, McGarigal K, et al. (2010) Thresholds in songbird occurrence in relation to early seral broadleaf forest. Ecological Applications 20: 2116–2130. [PubMed]
19. Sauer JR, Hines JE, Fallon J (2008) The North American Breeding Bird Survey, Results and Analysis 1966–2007. Version 5.15.2008. USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. Laurel, MD.
20. Rich TD, Beardmore CJ, Berlanga H, Blancher PJ, Bradstreet MSW, et al. (2004) Partners in Flight North American Landbird Conservation Plan, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.
21. Morrison ML, Meslow EC (1984) Response of avian communities to herbicide-induced vegetation changes. Journal of Wildlife Management 48: 14–22.
22. Gelman A, Carlin JB, Stern HS, Rubin DB (2004) Bayesian data analysis, 2nd edition: Chapman & Hall/CRC, Boca Raton, FL, USA.
23. Swanson ME, Franklin JF, Beschta RL, Crisafulli CM, DellaSala DA, et al. (2011) The forgotten stage of forest succession: early-successional ecosystems on forest sites. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 9: 117–125.
24. Ellis TM, Kroll AJ, Betts MG (2012) Early seral hardwood vegetation increases adult and fledgling bird abundance in Douglas-fir plantations of the Oregon Coast Range, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 42: 918–933.
25. Harrington TB, Madsen J (2005) Silvicultural technology and applications for forest plantation establishment west of the Cascade crest. In: Harrington CA, Schoenholtz SH, editors. Productivity of Western forests: a forest products focus: Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-642, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR, USA: 176 p. 27–37.
26. Martin TE (1987) Food as a limit on breeding birds: a life-history perspective. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 18: 453–487.
27. Nagy LR, Holmes RT (2005) Food limits annual fecundity of a migratory songbird: an experimental study. Ecology 86: 675–681.
28. Marshall MR, DeCecco JA, Williams AB, Galeb GA, Cooper RJ (2003) Use of regenerating clearcuts by late-successional bird species and their young during the post-fledging period. Forest Ecology and Management 183: 127–135.
29. Martin TE (1993) Nest predation among vegetation layers and habitat types: revising the dogmas. The American Naturalist 141: 897–913. [PubMed] 30. Lima SL (2009) Predators and the breeding bird: behavioral and reproductive flexibility under the risk of predation. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 84: 485–513. [PubMed]
31. Carnus J-M, Parrotta J, Brockerhoff E, Arbez M, Jactel H, et al. (2006) Planted forests and biodiversity. Journal of Forestry 104: 65–77.
32. Martin TE (1992) Breeding productivity considerations: what are the appropriate habitat features for management? In: Hagan JM, Johnston DW, editors. Ecology and conservation of neotropical migrants. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. 455–473.
33. Nájera A, Simonetti JA (2010) Enhancing avifauna in commercial plantations. Conservation Biology 24: 319–324. [PubMed]
34. Oliver CD, Larson BC (1996) Forest stand dynamics: John Wiley and Sons, New York, New York, USA.
35. Tappeiner JCII, Zasada JC, Huffman DW, Ganio LM (2001) Salmonberry and salal annual aerial stem production: the maintenance of shrub cover in forest stands. Canadian Journal of Forestry Research 31: 1629–1638.
36. MacArthur RH, MacArthur JW (1961) On bird species diversity. Ecology 42: 594–598.
37. Willson MF (1974) Avian community organization and habitat structure. Ecology 55: 1017–1029.
38. Terborgh J, Weske JS (1975) The role of competition in the distribution of Andean birds. Ecology 56: 562–576.
39. Pearman PB (2002) The scale of community structure: habitat variation and avian guilds in tropical forest understory. Ecological Monographs 72: 19–39.
40. van Dorp D, Opdam PFM (1987) Effects of patch size, isolation and regional abundance on forest bird communities. Landscape Ecology 1: 59–73.
41. Lesak AA, Radeloff VC, Hawbaker TJ, Pidgeon AM, Gobakken T, et al. (2011) Modeling forest songbird species richness using LiDAR-derived measures of forest structure. Remote Sensing of Environment 115: 2823–2835.
42. Maas B, Putra DD, Waltert M, Clough Y, Tscharntke T, et al. (2009) Six years of habitat modification in a tropical rainforest margin of Indonesia do not affect bird diversity but endemic forest species. Biological Conservation 142: 2665–2671.
43. Bibby CJ, Buckland ST (1987) Bias of bird census results due to detectability varying with habitat. Acta Oecologica 8: 103–112.
44. Schieck J (1997) Biased detection of bird vocalizations affects comparisons of bird abundance among forested habitats. Condor 99: 179–190.
45. Zipkin EF, DeWan A, Royle JA (2009) Impacts of forest fragmentation on species richness: a hierarchical approach to community modelling. Journal of Applied Ecology 46: 815–822.
46. Linden DW, Roloff GJ (in review) Conserving avian richness through structure retention in managed forests of the Pacific Northwest. Forest Ecology and Management.
47. MacKenzie DI, Nichols JD, Lachman GB, Droege S, Royle JA, et al. (2002) Estimating site occupancy rates when detection probabilities are less than one. Ecology 83: 2248–2255.
48. Dorazio RM, Royle JA (2005) Estimating size and composition of biological communities by modeling the occurrence of species. Journal of the American Statistical Association 100: 389–398.
49. Etterson MA, Niemi GJ, Danz NP (2009) Estimating the effects of detection heterogeneity and overdispersion on trends estimated from avian point counts. Ecological Applications 19: 2049–2666. [PubMed]
50. Hutchinson GE (1959) Homage to Santa Rosalia or why are there so many kinds of animals? American Naturalist 93: 145–159.
51. Jetz W, Kreft H, Ceballos G, Mutke J (2009) Global associations between terrestrial producer and vertebrate consumer diversity. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 276: 269–278. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
52. Kissling WD, Field R, Böhning-Gaese K (2008) Spatial patterns of woody plant and bird diversity: functional relationships or environmental effects? Global Ecology and Biogeography 17: 327–339.
53. Connor EF, Simberloff D (1979) The assembly of species communities: chance or competition? Ecology 60: 1132–1140.
54. Vitousek PM, Mooney HA, Lubchenco J, Melillo JM (1997) Human domination of Earth’s ecosystems. Science 277: 494–499.
55. Flynn DFB, Gogol-Prokurat M, Nogeire T, Molinari N, Richers BT, et al. (2009) Loss of functional diversity under land use intensification across multiple taxa. Ecology Letters 12: 22–33. [PubMed]
56. Zipkin EF, Royle JA, Dawson DK, Bates S (2010) Multi-species occurrence models to evaluate the effects of conservation and management actions. Biological Conservation 143: 479–484.
57. Cam E, Nichols JD, Sauer JR, Hines JE, Flather CH (2000) Relative species richness and community completeness: birds and urbanization in the mid-Atlantic states. Ecological Applications 10: 1196–1210.
58. Harvey CA, Villalobos JAG (2007) Agroforestry systems conserve species-rich but modified assemblages of tropical birds and bats. Biodiversity and Conservation 16: 2257–2292.
59. Ralph CJ, Droege S, Sauer JR (1995) Monitoring bird populations by point counts. Albany: General Technical Report PSW-GTR-149, U.S. Dept of Agricultural Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station. 187 p.
60. Russell RE, Royle JA, Saab VA, Lehmkuhl JF, Block WM, et al. (2009) Modeling the effects of environmental disturbance on wildlife communities: avian responses to prescribed fire. Ecological Applications 19: 1253–1263. [PubMed]
61. Terborgh J (1977) Bird species-diversity on an Andean elevational gradient. Ecology 58: 1007–1019.
62. Rahbek C (1997) The relationship among area, elevation, and regional species richness in neotropical birds. American Naturalist 149: 875–902. [PubMed]
63. Spiegelhalter DJ, Thomas A, Best NG, Lunn D (2003) WinBUGS Version 1.4 User Manual: MRC BiostatisticsUnit, Cambridge, UK.
64. R Development Core Team (2010) R: A language and environment for statistical computing: R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
65. Sturtz S, Ligges U, Gelman A (2005) R2WinBUGS: a package for running WinBUGS from R. Journal of Statistical Software. 12: 1–16.
66. Gelman A, Pardoe I (2007) Average predictive comparisons for models with nonlinearity, interactions, and variance components. Sociological Methodology 37: 23–51.