Regardless of the search term, total amount and number of grants funded by the NIAID have increased during the study period. From FY2007 to FY2008 the total amount increased by approximately 82% and further increased by 22% from FY2008 to FY2009. The number of grants funded from FY2007 to FY2009 increased by 58% and then 16%. Consequently, the average funds per grant steadily increased as well. This trend seems to follow the total NIAID budget (Table ).
Number of NIAID Grants and Amounts by Search Term and Year
As mentioned, the funding trend for antimicrobial resistance studies during FY2007 through FY2009 shows a large increase during the first year and then a smaller increase in the subsequent year. This trend is also observed when the grants are stratified by pathogen of interest; non-bacterial (> 90% being viruses) and bacterial (combination of ESCKAPE, Mycobacterium, and other bacterial pathogens) (Figure ). Both groups show similar overall trend, consistent with the total funds trend, however the funding for bacterial pathogens has seen a smaller increase than non-bacterial pathogens during FY2008 to FY2009.
NIAID Funding for Antimicrobial Resistance Stratified by Non-bacterial Grants vs. Bacterial Grants.
The total funding for all ESKCAPE pathogens was $ 22,005,943 in FY2007, $ 30,810,153 in FY2008 and $ 49,801,227 in FY2009. Staphylococcus aureus grants received $ 29,193,264 in FY2009, the highest funding amount of all the ESCKAPE pathogens. Enterobacter species received $ 378,005 in FY2009, the lowest amount of all the ESCKAPE pathogens. In FY2009, Enterococcus faecium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Clostridium difficile grants received $602,635, $1,412,872, $2,329,872, $11,708,364, and $4,778,850 respectively. The funding trend for all ESCKAPE pathogens increased during the three year study period, except Enterobacter species due to lack of data for years prior to 2009 (Figure ). Total grant funding increased by 40% for the first year and increased by 61% the following year. The majority of the grant funding was related to Staphylococcus aureus, which increased approximately 2.5 times from FY2007 to FY2009.
NIAID Funding by ESCKAPE Pathogen.
In 2005, there were an estimated 18,650 deaths among people infected with MRSA.[10
] Based on FY2009 funding data for Staphylococcus aureus
, approximately $1,565 of research funding was spent per death. In 2007, 6,372 people infected with Clostridium difficile
] Based on FY2009 funding data, approximately $750 of research funding was spent per C. difficile
death. According to the NIH RePORT database, NIAID funding for HIV/AIDS was estimated to be $1.302 billion. This is similar to previous reports of $1.244 billion of NIAID funds allocated to HIV/AIDS in 2009.[11
] Roughly 17,000 - 18,000 HIV deaths occur annually in the U.S.[12
] Based on these rough numbers approximately $72,000 - $76,000 per HIV/AIDS death was spent for research.
Our search results were compared to the grants listed in the "Antimicrobial Resistance" category of the NIH RePORT Research, Condition, and Disease Categories (RCDC) (http://report.nih.gov/rcdc/categories/
) (Figure ). Unlike our search, the NIH grants listed in the RCDC Antimicrobial Resistance category only covered the search term "Antimicrobial resistance" for FY2008 and FY2009. However, the overall results are similar; from FY2008 to FY2009 general funding in the RCDC Antimicrobial Resistance category increased by 25%, ESCKAPE pathogen funding increased by 24%, and about half of the funding is devoted to bacterial pathogens. The results that we reported are slightly different from the RCDC results because we included the "Hospital-associated infection" search term, which would have added more non-resistant bacterial grants to our search results.
Funding from NIH Research, Condition, and Disease Categories Category "Antimicrobial Resistance" (FY2008 and FY2009).
Using NIH RePORTER we also attempted to evaluate grants funded by other agencies for ESCKAPE pathogens during the FY2007 - 2009. We focused on three major agencies; CDC, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), and Veteran's Health Administration (VHA). No information was obtained for AHRQ and no funding amounts were listed for VHA. During the search, there were only four grants listed for VHA in the FY2009. Nine grants related to ESCKAPE pathogens were funded by the CDC in FY2007-08 and decreased to six grants in FY2009. Funding amounts decreased over the same period from approximately $3 million in FY2007 to approximately $1.9 million in FY2009.