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Logo of bmcgastBioMed Centralsearchsubmit a manuscriptregisterthis articleBMC Gastroenterology
 
BMC Gastroenterol. 2012; 12: 81.
Published online Jun 26, 2012. doi:  10.1186/1471-230X-12-81
PMCID: PMC3412704
Evaluation of ES-derived neural progenitors as a potential source for cell replacement therapy in the gut
Valentina Sasselli,1 Maria-Adelaide Micci,1 Kristen M Kahrig,1 and Pankaj Jay Pasrichacorresponding author1,2
1Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA
2Johns Hopkins Center for Neurogastroenterology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
Valentina Sasselli: vsassel/at/nimr.mrc.uk; Maria-Adelaide Micci: mmicci/at/utmb.edu; Kristen M Kahrig: kmkahrig/at/utmb.edu; Pankaj Jay Pasricha: ppasric1/at/jhmi.edu
Received October 4, 2010; Accepted June 26, 2012.
Abstract
Background
Stem cell-based therapy has recently been explored for the treatment of disorders of the enteric nervous system (ENS). Pluripotent embryonic stem (ES) cells represent an attractive cell source; however, little or no information is currently available on how ES cells will respond to the gut environment. In this study, we investigated the ability of ES cells to respond to environmental cues derived from the ENS and related tissues, both in vitro and in vivo.
Methods
Neurospheres were generated from mouse ES cells (ES-NS) and co-cultured with organotypic preparations of gut tissue consisting of the longitudinal muscle layers with the adherent myenteric plexus (LM-MP).
Results
LM-MP co-culture led to a significant increase in the expression of pan-neuronal markers (βIII-tubulin, PGP 9.5) as well as more specialized markers (peripherin, nNOS) in ES-NS, both at the transcriptional and protein level. The increased expression was not associated with increased proliferation, thus confirming a true neurogenic effect. LM-MP preparations exerted also a myogenic effect on ES-NS, although to a lesser extent. After transplantation in vivo into the mouse pylorus, grafted ES-NS failed to acquire a distinct phenotype al least 1 week following transplantation.
Conclusions
This is the first study reporting that the gut explants can induce neuronal differentiation of ES cells in vitro and induce the expression of nNOS, a key molecule in gastrointestinal motility regulation. The inability of ES-NS to adopt a neuronal phenotype after transplantation in the gastrointestinal tract is suggestive of the presence of local inhibitory influences that prevent ES-NS differentiation in vivo.
Keywords: Embryonic stem cells, Enteric nervous system, Gastrointestinal motility, Stem cell transplantation
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