Apart from the fore-mentioned ticks, other potential vectors exist, as a number of medically important ticks have been described 
. This includes Haemaphysalis sulcata
, which is similar to Haemaphysalis spinigera
, the main vector of KFDV in India 
. These ticks, some already associated with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and Kadam ecology 
, have a complex multi-host life cycle. AHFV RNA and virus were detected in the soft tick (Ornithodoros savignyi
) associated with camel resting place in Eastern Jeddah 
and Najran market 
. O. savignyi
is widely distributed in the Arabian Peninsula and can survive in a dormant state for extended periods of time 
. More studies are needed to confirm the vector status of these ticks as well as understand the intra-tick AHFV replication dynamics; relevant studies have been recommended in Box 3
. The role of other arthropods (mosquitoes, Culicoides, sand flies, etc.) in AHFV ecology remains unknown, and a suggested mosquito-transmission hypothesis 
Box 3. Recommendations – Vector and Reservoir Identification
- Ticks from tick-infested livestock should be tested for AHFV. To sample adult hard ticks, assuming a 1% infection rate and tested in pools of five or fewer individual ticks, it is suggested that at least 250 ticks per sample site per sample time point with preferably no more than one pool per tick species per animal.
- Studies confirming the vectorial capability of Ornithodoros savignyi and Hyalomma dromedarii and other potential vectors are required. The experimental infection/inoculation of ticks at different stages of development using suitable animal models in appropriate arthropod containment level facilities is recommended.
- Well focused, multidisciplinary ecological studies elucidating transmission patterns in various ecotypes are recommended: data elicited should guide interventions aimed at controlling AHFV vectors. These studies should reveal the fauna hosting immature stages of potential AHFV vectors.
- Acaricide sensitivity, resistance, and environmental effects should be regularly monitored.
- Of lesser priority, other potential arthropod vectors (mosquitoes, midges, sand flies, etc.) could be tested for AHFV and evaluated for vector competency.
- The possible role of bats and birds in AHFV ecology should be evaluated, serologically and experimentally.
Although livestock have been linked with human infection, they may not be the reservoir hosts of AHFV. The putative vectors (all stages of O. savignyi
and the earlier life stages of H. dromedarii
) are not usually found on livestock. The different life stages of these ticks have a broad host range: apart from livestock, they parasitize a wide range of local fauna 
. The known ecology of KFDV may provide insight as to what to expect for its genetic variant, AHFV. The first outbreak of KFDV in Karnataka coincided with fatalities in monkeys from the nearby Kyasanur forest: KFDV was isolated from these monkeys and associated Haemaphysalis
. The role of various life stages of Haemaphysalis
ticks, rodents, and other small mammals native to this forest in the ecology of KFDV has been documented 
. Rodent-to-human transmission of KFDV has also been suggested