To investigate the mode of inheritance of apomixis in Chinese chive, the degrees of diplospory and parthenogenesis were evaluated in F1 and BC1 progenies derived from crosses between amphimictic and apomictic diploids (2n = 16, 2x). The F1 population was generated by crossing three amphimictic diploids 94Mo13, 94Mo49 and 94Mo50 with an apomictic diploid KaD2 and comprised 110 diploids and 773 triploids. All the diploid F1 plants examined were completely or highly eusporous and completely syngamic. All the triploid F1 plants examined were highly diplosporous and highly parthenogenetic. KaD2 could not transmit its high level of apomixis via monoploid pollen grains. The BC1 population, generated by crossing 94Mo49 with apomictic triploids found in the F1 offspring, exhibited heteroploidy; it comprised haploid, diploid, triploid, tetraploid and various aneuploid individuals. In this generation, clear segregation was observed between diplospory and parthenogenesis. Analysis of the BC1 population suggests that diplospory and parthenogenesis are each controlled by single dominant genes, D and P, respectively. However, all the BC1 plants characterized as parthenogenetic were diplosporous. The absence of phenotypically eusporous parthenogenetic plants can be explained by assuming that the presence of diplospory gene is a prerequisite for the parthenogenesis gene expression in Chinese chive.
Keywords: Allium ramosum, apomixis, Chinese chive, diploid, diplospory, parthenogenesis, triploid