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Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has typically been performed using air insufflation. Recently, however, insufflation of CO2 has been increasingly used to avoid complications. This prospective study was designed to compare the CO2 concentration, intestinal volume, and acid–base balance using the duodenal balloon procedure.
From June 2010 to February 2011, we enrolled 44 patients with esophageal or gastric cancer and randomly allocated them into two groups. We compared 22 patients undergoing CO2-insufflated ESD with a balloon placed into the duodenal bulb (duodenal balloon group) and 22 patients undergoing regular CO2-insufflated ESD (regular group). Three-dimensional computed tomography was performed before and after the procedure to measure intestinal volume. CO2 concentrations were measured every 10 minutes. The visual analogue system (VAS) scores for postoperative symptoms were recorded, and pH was measured immediately after the procedure. This was a prospective case control study randomized by the sealed envelope method.
Intestinal CO2 gas volume before and after ESD was lower in the duodenal balloon group than in the regular group (P=0.00027). The end-tidal CO2 level was significantly lower in the duodenal balloon group than in the regular group (P=0.0001). No significant differences in blood ΔpH were found between the two groups. The VAS score for the occurrence of nausea due to abdominal distension after ESD indicated a significant difference (P=0.031).
ESD using the duodenal balloon occlusion method is effective for reduction of post-ESD intestinal CO2 gas volume, resulting in a lower total amount of CO2 insufflation during ESD and reducing harmful influences on the human body to some extent.