Search tips
Search criteria 


Logo of actavetsBioMed CentralBiomed Central Web Sitesearchsubmit a manuscriptregisterthis articleActa Veterinaria Scandinavica
Acta Vet Scand. 2012; 54(1): 33.
Published online 2012 May 28. doi:  10.1186/1751-0147-54-33
PMCID: PMC3403930

Effect of active immunization against GnRH on testosterone concentration, libido and sperm quality in mature AI boars



The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of the Improvac on testosterone concentration in blood serum, sexual behavior and sperm quality in matured AI boars. A total of nine Danish Landrace AI boars were included in the analysis.


The trial period lasted for 15 weeks and was divided into four periods: Control period: three weeks before vaccination; Period I – four weeks after first vaccination; Period II – four weeks after second vaccination, Period III – four weeks after third vaccination. Blood and sperm samples were collected at weekly intervals. Freshly collected sperm samples were analyzed.


Testosterone concentration correlated with libido (r = 0.531; p < 0.001), volume of ejaculate (r = 0.324; p < 0.001) and the percentage of morphologically normal spermatozoa (r = 0.207; p < 0.05). Testosterone concentration rised significantly (p < 0.05) in 5–6 week of trial, e. i. after the first dose of Improvac and after this peak the level of testosterone further progressively decreased (p < 0.05).


Results from this study indicate that active immunization of sexually matured boars against GnRH has negative impact on testosterone concentration, sexual behavior, volume of ejaculate and total number of normal spermatozoa in ejaculate.

Keywords: Testosterone, Sperm quality, Immunization against GnRH, Boars.

Articles from Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica are provided here courtesy of BioMed Central