Background & Aims
The mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor (M6P/IGF2R), a multifunctional protein, plays a central role in intracellular targeting of lysosomal enzymes and control of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) bioactivity. Importantly, the gene encoding this receptor is frequently inactivated in a wide range of malignant tumors including hepatocellular carcinomas. Thus, M6P/IGF2R is considered a putative liver tumor suppressor. The aim of this study was to establish the impact of the receptor on the invasive properties of liver cells.
Reconstitution experiments were performed by expression of wild type and mutant M6P/IGF2R in receptor-deficient FRL14 fetal rat liver cells. RNA interference was used to induce M6P/IGF2R downregulation in receptor-positive MIM-1–4 mouse hepatocytes.
We show that the M6P/IGF2R status exerts a strong impact on the invasiveness of tumorigenic rodent liver cells. M6P/IGF2R-deficient fetal rat liver cells hypersecrete lysosomal cathepsins and penetrate extracellular matrix barriers in a cathepsin-dependent manner. Forced expression of M6P/IGF2R restores intracellular transport of cathepsins to lysosomes and concomitantly reduces the tumorigenicity and invasive potential of these cells. Conversely, M6P/IGF2R knock-down in receptor-positive mouse hepatocytes causes increased cathepsin secretion as well as enhanced cell motility and invasiveness. We also demonstrate that functional M6P-binding sites are important for the anti-invasive properties of M6P/IGF2R, whereas the capacity to bind IGF-II is dispensable for the anti-invasive activity of the receptor in liver cells.
M6P/IGF2R restricts liver cell invasion by preventing the pericellular action of M6P-modified proteins.
Abbreviations: BSA, bovine serum albumin; ECM, extracellular matrix; FBS, fetal bovine serum; HCC, hepatocellular carcinoma; HGF, hepatocyte growth factor; IGF-II, insulin-like growth factor II; M6P, mannose 6-phosphate; M6P/IGF2R, mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor; MPR46, 46-kDa mannose 6-phosphate receptor; RNAi, RNA interference; shRNA, short hairpin RNA; siRNA, short interfering RNA
Keywords: Cathepsin, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Lysosome, Matrix degradation, Cell invasion