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Logo of bmcimmBioMed Centralsearchsubmit a manuscriptregisterthis articleBMC Immunology
 
BMC Immunol. 2012; 13: 4.
Published online Jan 16, 2012. doi:  10.1186/1471-2172-13-4
PMCID: PMC3398285
Micrurus snake venoms activate human complement system and generate anaphylatoxins
Gabriela D Tanaka,1 Giselle Pidde-Queiroz,1 Maria de Fátima D Furtado,2 Carmen van den Berg,3 and Denise V Tambourgicorresponding author1
1Immunochemistry Laboratory, Butantan Institute, Av. Vital Brazil, 1500, São Paulo, 05503-900, Brazil
2Herpetology Laboratory, Butantan Institute, Av. Vital Brazil, 1500, São Paulo, 05503-900, Brazil
3Department of Pharmacology, Oncology and Radiology, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF14 4XN, UK
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
Gabriela D Tanaka: gabriela_tanaka/at/butantan.gov.br; Giselle Pidde-Queiroz: gispidde/at/butantan.gov.br; Maria de Fátima D Furtado: fatifurtado/at/butantan.gov.br; Carmen van den Berg: vandenbergcw/at/cardiff.ac.uk; Denise V Tambourgi: dvtambourgi/at/butantan.gov.br
Received November 3, 2011; Accepted January 16, 2012.
Abstract
Background
The genus Micrurus, coral snakes (Serpentes, Elapidae), comprises more than 120 species and subspecies distributed from the south United States to the south of South America. Micrurus snake bites can cause death by muscle paralysis and further respiratory arrest within a few hours after envenomation. Clinical observations show mainly neurotoxic symptoms, although other biological activities have also been experimentally observed, including cardiotoxicity, hemolysis, edema and myotoxicity.
Results
In the present study we have investigated the action of venoms from seven species of snakes from the genus Micrurus on the complement system in in vitro studies. Several of the Micrurus species could consume the classical and/or the lectin pathways, but not the alternative pathway, and C3a, C4a and C5a were generated in sera treated with the venoms as result of this complement activation. Micrurus venoms were also able to directly cleave the α chain of the component C3, but not of the C4, which was inhibited by 1,10 Phenanthroline, suggesting the presence of a C3α chain specific metalloprotease in Micrurus spp venoms. Furthermore, complement activation was in part associated with the cleavage of C1-Inhibitor by protease(s) present in the venoms, which disrupts complement activation control.
Conclusion
Micrurus venoms can activate the complement system, generating a significant amount of anaphylatoxins, which may assist due to their vasodilatory effects, to enhance the spreading of other venom components during the envenomation process.
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