In Italy, CB-SC storage is exclusively allowed at authorized public facilities (about 15 of them are scattered across the country) and is envisaged either for solidarity purposes (ie, for any patient requiring it, without any discrimination) or for an ad hoc use (donation targeted at a family member affected by a disease and requiring a transplant, and in the case of families at high risk of genetic diseases that are curable by hematopoietic SC transplantation). However, CB-SC storage for autologous use reserved for the donor (who is healthy at the time of birth and is highly likely never to need his/her cord blood) is not allowed. The Italian legislation explicitly forbids private facilities not only to store CB but also to advertise and promote such an activity (ordinance by the Ministry of Health on February 26, 2009).
The ordinance, however, allows women who want to preserve their CB for their child to do so, for a fee, at accredited foreign banks, subject to a previous authorization by the Ministry of Health. In compliance with the Italian national legislation, the Friuli Venezia Giulia (FVG) region of North Eastern Italy has regulated CB-SC collection, transport, and storage. It has identified the Institute for Maternal and Child Health of Trieste (the regional capital city) as the center responsible for the regional public collection program, and the Cord Blood Bank of Padua (a city located in the neighbouring Veneto region) as the storage center, by means of an operational transport protocol entrusted to the civil protection volunteers. Furthermore, the FVG region has entrusted the health care boards of birth centers with the responsibility of granting authorization for the banking of CB-SCs in foreign states for private use, by establishing a fee to cover collection costs (€300) to be added to the approximately €2000 a year charged by the foreign bank (Decree No 2324/2010).