This work was supported by National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Department of Health and Human Services (contract N01 HR 56179).
The PALISI network participants include the following: Arkansas Children's Hospital (Little Rock, AR): Ronald C. Sanders, MD, and Glenda Hefley, MNsc, RN; Phoenix Children's Hospital (Phoenix, AZ): David W. Tellez, MD, and Velva Woodward, RN; Miller Children's Hospital Long Beach (Long Beach, CA): Christopher Babbitt, MD, and Rosalynn Gurrola, RN; Children's Hospital of Los Angeles (Los Angeles, CA): Barry Markovitz, MD, Jeff Terry, MBA, and Karen Waters, RN; Children's Hospital of Central California (Madera, CA): Ana Lia Graciano, MD, Melita Baldwin, CHCC, and Aurelia Ayala, RN; Children's Hospital and Research Center (Oakland, CA): Heidi Flori, MD, and Julie Simon, RN; Children's Hospital of Orange County (Orange, CA): Nick Anas, MD, and Stephanie Osborne, RN; UCSF Children's Medical Center (San Francisco, CA): Anil Sapru, MD, and Maureen Convery, RN; Yale-New Haven Children's Hospital (New Haven, CT): John S. Giuliano Jr, MD, and Kellie Martino; The Children's Hospital (Aurora, CO): Angela Czaja, MD, Peter Mourani, MD, and Susanna Burr; Connecticut Children's Medical Center (Hartford, CT): Christopher L. Carroll, MD, and Indira Sadhu, RN; Holtz Children's Hospital (Miami, FL): Gwenn McLaughlin, MD, and Yenis Mijares; Children's Healthcare of Atlanta at Egleston (Atlanta, GA): Matthew Paden, MD, and Rich Toney, RN; Kapi'olani Center for Women and Children (Honolulu, HI): Rupert Cheng, MD, Len Tanaka, MD, and Sara Murakami; Kosair Children's Hospital (Louisville, KY): Vicki Montgomery, MD, and Kara Richardson, RN; Children's Hospital Boston (Boston, MA): Adrienne Randolph, MD, MSc, Grace Yoon, RN, NNP, Ryan Sullivan RN, and Anna Agan, BA; Johns Hopkins Children's Center (Baltimore, MD): Melania Bembea, MD, MPH, and Beth White, RN; St Louis Children's Hospital (St Louis, MO): Allan Doctor, MD, Bertram Hicks, RN, and Regina Yu; Helen DeVos Children's Hospital (Grand Rapids, MI): Raja Surender, MD, and Jeni Wincek, RN, MSN; Duke Children's Hospital and Health Center (Durham, NC): David A. Turner, MD, and Samantha Tate; Children's Hospital of Nebraska (Omaha, NE): Edward Truemper, MD, and Machelle Zink, BSN, MEd; Children's Hospital at Dartmouth (Lebanon, NH): Daniel L. Levin, MD, and J. Dean Jarvis, RN; Golisano Children's Hospital (Rochester, NY): Kate Ackerman, MD, Jill Cholette, MD, and Eileen Tallie; Nationwide Children's Hospital (Columbus, OH): Mark W. Hall, MD, and Kristin Greathouse, BSN, MS; Children's Hospital at St Francis (Tulsa, OK): R. Philip Barton, MD, Kellie Brown, RN, and Christy Dallis, RN; Doernbecher Children's Hospital (Portland, OR): Aileen Kirby, MD; Penn State Hershey Children's Hospital (Hershey, PA): Neal Thomas, MD, Jill Raymond, RN, MSN, and Debra Spear, RN; Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, PA): Mark Helfaer, MD, Mary Ann Diliberto, RN, and Ashleigh Clair, MS; Monroe Carell Jr Children's Hospital at Vanderbilt (Nashville, TN): Rick Barr, MD, MSc, and Pamela Berry, RN, CCRP; Dell Children's Medical Center of Central Texas (Austin, TX): Renee Higgerson, MD, LeeAnn Christie, RN, and Tamika Rhodes; University of Texas Southwestern Children's Medical Center at Dallas (Dallas, TX): Cindy Darnell, MD, and Julie Long, PhD; Texas Children's Hospital (Houston, TX): Laura L. Loftis, MD, Yvonne Kay Henry, BS, Nancy Jaimon, RN, Ursula Kyle, MS, RD/LD; University of Virginia Children's Medical Center (Charlottesville, VA): Douglas F. Willson, MD, and Christine Traul, MD; Seattle Children's Hospital (Seattle, WA): Jerry Zimmerman, MD, and Ruth Barker, RRT, NPS, CCRC; and Children's Hospital of Wisconsin (Milwaukee, WI): Rainer Gedeit, MD, Kathy Murkowski, RRT, and Kate Luther.
We thank Elizabeth Higgs, MD, and Andrea Harabin, PhD, for helpful comments on the manuscript. Anna Agan and Cathryn Oldmixon, RN, provided administrative coordination, and David Schoenfeld, PhD, provided statistical and data-management oversight. In addition, we thank all of the PALISI network participants.