Author affiliations: Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts (Elizabeth R. Bertone-Johnson); Department of Psychology, College of Natural Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts (Sally I. Powers); Group Health Research Institute, Seattle, Washington (Leslie Spangler); Department of Family and Community Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada (Robert L. Brunner); Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Yvonne L. Michael); Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (Joseph Larson); Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health and Health Professions, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York (Amy E. Millen); Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (Maria N. Bueche, JoAnn E. Manson); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts (Elena Salmoirago-Blotcher, Ira Ockene); Division of Preventive and Behavioral Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts (Judith K. Ockene); Department of Medicine, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (Simin Liu); and Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller).
The Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) is funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute through contracts N01WH22110, N01WH24152, N01WH 32100-2, N01WH 32105-6, N01WH 32108-9, N01WH 32111-13, 32115, N01WH 32118-32119, N01WH 32122, N01WH 42107-26, N01WH 42129-32, and N01WH 44221.
The WHI Investigators—Program Office: (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, Maryland) Jacques Rossouw, Shari Ludlam, Joan McGowan, Leslie Ford, and Nancy Geller; Clinical Coordinating Center: (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington) Ross Prentice, Garnet Anderson, Andrea LaCroix, Charles L. Kooperberg; (Medical Research Labs, Highland Heights, Kentucky) Evan Stein; (University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California) Steven Cummings; Clinical Centers: (Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York) Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller; (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas) Haleh Sangi-Haghpeykar; (Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts) JoAnn E. Manson; (Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island) Charles B. Eaton; (Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia) Lawrence S. Phillips; (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington) Shirley Beresford; (George Washington University Medical Center, Washington, DC) Lisa Martin; (Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, California) Rowan Chlebowski; (Kaiser Permanente Center for Health Research, Portland, Oregon) Erin LeBlanc; (Kaiser Permanente Division of Research, Oakland, California) Bette Caan; (Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin) Jane Morley Kotchen; (MedStar Research Institute/Howard University, Washington, DC) Barbara V. Howard; (Northwestern University, Chicago/Evanston, Illinois) Linda Van Horn; (Rush Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois) Henry Black; (Stanford Prevention Research Center, Stanford, California) Marcia L. Stefanick; (State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York) Dorothy Lane; (Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio) Rebecca Jackson; (University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama) Cora E. Lewis; (University of Arizona, Phoenix, Arizona) Cynthia A. Thomson; (State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York) Jean Wactawski-Wende; (University of California, Davis, Sacramento, California) John Robbins; (University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California) F. Allan Hubbell; (University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California) Lauren Nathan; (University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California) Robert D. Langer; (University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio) Margery Gass; (University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida) Marian Limacher; (University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii) J. David Curb; (University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa) Robert Wallace; (University of Massachusetts/Fallon Clinic, Worcester, Massachusetts) Judith Ockene; (University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, New Jersey) Norman Lasser; (University of Miami, Miami, Florida) Mary Jo O’Sullivan; (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota) Karen Margolis; (University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada) Robert Brunner; (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina) Gerardo Heiss; (University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) Lewis Kuller; (University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee) Karen C. Johnson; (University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas) Robert Brzyski; (University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin) Gloria E. Sarto; (Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina) Mara Vitolins; (Wayne State University School of Medicine/Hutzel Hospital, Detroit, Michigan) Michael S. Simon; WHI Memory Study: (Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, North Carolina) Sally Shumaker.
The funding organization was independent of the design and conduct of the study; the collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; and the preparation, review, and approval of the manuscript.
Dr. JoAnn E. Manson and colleagues at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, are recipients of funding from the National Institutes of Health to conduct the Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial, a large-scale randomized trial of the role of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease.