2. Shiffman RN, Shekelle P, Overhage JM, Slutsky J, Grimshaw J, Deshpande AM. Standardized reporting of clinical practice guidelines: A proposal from the Conference on Guideline Standardization. Ann Intern Med. 2003;139:493–8. [PubMed] 3. Ghany MG, Nelson DR, Strader DB, Thomas DL, Seeff LB. An update on treatment of genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C virus infection: 2011 practice guideline by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Hepatology. 2011;54:1433–44. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 4. Sherman M, Shafran S, Burak K, et al. Management of chronic hepatitis C: Consensus guidelines. Can J Gastroenterol. 2007;21(Suppl C):25C–34C. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 5. Poordad F, McCone J, Jr, Bacon BR, et al. Boceprevir for untreated chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:1195–206. [PubMed] 6. Jacobson IM, McHutchison JG, Dusheiko G, et al. Telaprevir for previously untreated chronic hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:2405–16. [PubMed] 7. Sherman KE, Flamm SL, Afdhal NH, et al. Response-guided telaprevir combination treatment for hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med. 2011;365:1014–24. [PubMed] 8. Zeuzem S, Andreone P, Pol S, et al. Telaprevir for retreatment of HCV infection. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:2417–28. [PubMed] 9. Bacon BR, Gordon SC, Lawitz E, et al. Boceprevir for previously treated chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:1207–17. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 10. Thomas DL, Thio CL, Martin MP, et al. Genetic variation in IL28B and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus. Nature. 2009;461:798–801. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 11. Ge D, Fellay J, Thompson AJ, et al. Genetic variation in IL28B predicts hepatitis C treatment-induced viral clearance. Nature. 2009;461:399–401. [PubMed] 12. Kurbanov F, Abdel-Hamid M, Latanich R, et al. Genetic polymorphism in IL28B is associated with spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus genotype 4 infection in an Egyptian cohort. J Infect Dis. 204:1391–4. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 13. Tanaka Y, Nishida N, Sugiyama M, et al. Genome-wide association of IL28B with response to pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Nat Genet. 2009;41:1105–9. [PubMed] 14. Myers RP, Liu M, Shaheen AA. The burden of hepatitis C virus infection is growing: A Canadian population-based study of hospitalizations from 1994 to 2004. Can J Gastroenterol. 2008;22:381–7. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 16. Pearlman BL, Traub N. Sustained virologic response to antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus infection: A cure and so much more. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52:889–900. [PubMed] 17. Martinot-Peignoux M, Stern C, Maylin S, et al. Twelve weeks posttreatment follow-up is as relevant as 24 weeks to determine the sustained virologic response in patients with hepatitis C virus receiving pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Hepatology. 2010;51:1122–6. [PubMed] 18. Swain MG, Lai MY, Shiffman ML, et al. A sustained virologic response is durable in patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin. Gastroenterology. 2010;139:1593–601. [PubMed] 19. Maylin S, Martinot-Peignoux M, Moucari R, et al. Eradication of hepatitis C virus in patients successfully treated for chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology. 2008;135:821–9. [PubMed] 20. Myers RP, Cooper C, Sherman M, et al. Outcomes of chronic hepatitis C therapy in patients treated in community versus academic centres in Canada: Final results of APPROACH (A Prospective study of Peginterferon alfa-2a and Ribavirin at Academic and Community Centres in Canada) Can J Gastroenterol. 2011;25:503–10. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 21. Neary MP, Cort S, Bayliss MS, Ware JE., Jr Sustained virologic response is associated with improved health-related quality of life in relapsed chronic hepatitis C patients. Semin Liver Dis. 1999;19(Suppl 1):77–85. [PubMed] 22. Cacoub P, Ratziu V, Myers RP, et al. Impact of treatment on extra hepatic manifestations in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol. 2002;36:812–8. [PubMed] 23. Poynard T, McHutchison J, Manns M, et al. Impact of pegylated interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin on liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology. 2002;122:1303–13. [PubMed] 24. Poynard T, McHutchison J, Davis GL, et al. Impact of interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin on progression of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2000;32:1131–7. [PubMed] 25. Veldt BJ, Heathcote EJ, Wedemeyer H, et al. Sustained virologic response and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic hepatitis C and advanced fibrosis. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147:677–84. [PubMed] 26. Backus LI, Boothroyd DB, Phillips BR, Belperio P, Halloran J, Mole LA. A sustained virologic response reduces risk of all-cause mortality in patients with hepatitis C. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011;9:509–16. [PubMed] 27. Singal AG, Volk ML, Jensen D, Di Bisceglie AM, Schoenfeld PS. A sustained viral response is associated with reduced liver-related morbidity and mortality in patients with hepatitis C virus. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;8:280–8. [PubMed] 28. Kronenberger B, Zeuzem S. New developments in HCV therapy. J Viral Hepat. 2012;19(Suppl 1):48–51. [PubMed] 29. Falck-Ytter Y, Kale H, Mullen KD, Sarbah SA, Sorescu L, McCullough AJ. Surprisingly small effect of antiviral treatment in patients with hepatitis C. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136:288–92. [PubMed] 30. Doucette KE, Robson V, Shafran S, Kunimoto D. Improving access to care by allowing self-referral to a hepatitis C clinic. Can J Gastroenterol. 2009;23:421–4. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 31. Davis GL, Alter MJ, El-Serag H, Poynard T, Jennings LW. Aging of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected persons in the United States: A multiple cohort model of HCV prevalence and disease progression. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:513–21. [PubMed] 32. Intraobserver and interobserver variations in liver biopsy interpretation in patients with chronic hepatitis C. The French METAVIR Cooperative Study Group Hepatology. 1994;20:15–20. [PubMed] 33. McHutchison JG, Lawitz EJ, Shiffman ML, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2b or alfa-2a with ribavirin for treatment of hepatitis C infection. N Engl J Med. 2009;361:580–93. [PubMed] 34. Zeuzem S, Diago M, Gane E, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a (40 kilodaltons) and ribavirin in patients with chronic hepatitis C and normal aminotransferase levels. Gastroenterology. 2004;127:1724–32. [PubMed] 35. Puoti C, Magrini A, Stati T, et al. Clinical, histological, and virological features of hepatitis C virus carriers with persistently normal or abnormal alanine transaminase levels. Hepatology. 1997;26:1393–8. [PubMed] 36. Allen SA, Spaulding AC, Osei AM, Taylor LE, Cabral AM, Rich JD. Treatment of chronic hepatitis C in a state correctional facility. Ann Intern Med. 2003;138:187–90. [PubMed] 37. Martin CK, Hostetter JE, Hagan JJ. New opportunities for the management and therapy of hepatitis C in correctional settings. Am J Public Health. 2010;100:13–7. [PubMed] 38. Micallef JM, Kaldor JM, Dore GJ. Spontaneous viral clearance following acute hepatitis C infection: A systematic review of longitudinal studies. J Viral Hepat. 2006;13:34–41. [PubMed] 39. Sarrazin C, Kieffer TL, Bartels D, et al. Dynamic hepatitis C virus genotypic and phenotypic changes in patients treated with the protease inhibitor telaprevir. Gastroenterology. 2007;132:1767–77. [PubMed]
40. Sherman KE, Sulkowski MS, Zoulim F, et al. Follow-up of SVR durability and viral resistance in patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with telaprevir-based regimens: Interim analysis of the EXTEND study (Abstract 248) Hepatology. 2011;54(Suppl 4):485A. (Abst).
41. Bedossa P. Liver biopsy. Gastroenterol Clin Biol. 2008;32:4–7. [PubMed] 42. Myers RP, Fong A, Shaheen AA. Utilization rates, complications and costs of percutaneous liver biopsy: A population-based study including 4275 biopsies. Liver Int. 2008;28:705–12. [PubMed] 43. Rockey DC, Caldwell SH, Goodman ZD, Nelson RC, Smith AD. Liver biopsy. Hepatology. 2009;49:1017–44. [PubMed] 44. Guha IN, Myers RP, Patel K, Talwalkar JA. Biomarkers of liver fibrosis: What lies beneath the receiver operating characteristic curve? Hepatology. 2011;54:1454–62. doi: 10.1002/hep.24515. [PubMed] [Cross Ref] 45. Sheth SG, Flamm SL, Gordon FD, Chopra S. AST/ALT ratio predicts cirrhosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998;93:44–8. [PubMed] 46. Shaheen AA, Myers RP. Diagnostic accuracy of the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index for the prediction of hepatitis C-related fibrosis: A systematic review. Hepatology. 2007;46:912–21. [PubMed] 47. Forns X, Ampurdanes S, Llovet JM, et al. Identification of chronic hepatitis C patients without hepatic fibrosis by a simple predictive model. Hepatology. 2002;36:986–92. [PubMed] 48. Poynard T, Imbert-Bismut F, Munteanu M, et al. Overview of the diagnostic value of biochemical markers of liver fibrosis (FibroTest, HCV FibroSure) and necrosis (ActiTest) in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Comp Hepatol. 2004;3:8. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 49. Adams LA, Bulsara M, Rossi E, et al. Hepascore: An accurate validated predictor of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C infection. Clin Chem. 2005;51:1867–73. [PubMed] 50. Boursier J, Bacq Y, Halfon P, et al. Improved diagnostic accuracy of blood tests for severe fibrosis and cirrhosis in chronic hepatitis C. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2009;21:28–38. [PubMed] 51. Patel K, Benhamou Y, Yoshida EM, et al. An independent and prospective comparison of two commercial fibrosis marker panels (HCV FibroSURE and FIBROSpect II) during albinterferon alfa-2b combination therapy for chronic hepatitis C. J Viral Hepatol. 2009;16:178–86. [PubMed] 52. Parkes J, Guha IN, Roderick P, et al. Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF) test accurately identifies liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Viral Hepat. 2010;18:23–31. [PubMed] 53. Friedrich-Rust M, Ong MF, Martens S, et al. Performance of transient elastography for the staging of liver fibrosis: A meta-analysis. Gastroenterology. 2008;134:960–74. [PubMed] 54. Myers RP, Elkashab M, Ma M, Crotty P, Pomier-Layrargues G. Transient elastography for the noninvasive assessment of liver fibrosis: A multicentre Canadian study. Can J Gastroenterol. 2010;24:661–70. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 55. Castera L. Transient elastography and other noninvasive tests to assess hepatic fibrosis in patients with viral hepatitis. J Viral Hepatol. 2009;16:300–14. [PubMed] 56. Myers RP, Pomier-Layrargues G, Kirsch R, et al. Feasibility and diagnostic performance of the FibroScan XL probe for liver stiffness measurement in overweight and obese patients. Hepatology. 2012;55:199–208. [PubMed] 57. Lucidarme D, Foucher J, Le Bail B, et al. Factors of accuracy of transient elastography (fibroscan) for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2009;49:1083–9. [PubMed] 58. Myers RP, Pomier-Layrargues G, Kirsch R, et al. Discordance in fibrosis staging between liver biopsy and transient elastography using the FibroScan XL probe. J Hepatol. 2012;56:564–70. [PubMed] 59. Talwalkar JA, Yin M, Fidler JL, Sanderson SO, Kamath PS, Ehman RL. Magnetic resonance imaging of hepatic fibrosis: Emerging clinical applications. Hepatology. 2008;47:332–42. [PubMed] 60. Friedrich-Rust M, Nierhoff J, Lupsor M, et al. Performance of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse imaging for the staging of liver fibrosis: A pooled meta-analysis. J Viral Hepat. 2012;19:e212–e219. [PubMed] 61. Boursier J, de Ledinghen V, Zarski JP, et al. Comparison of eight diagnostic algorithms for liver fibrosis in hepatitis C: New algorithms are more precise and entirely noninvasive. Hepatology. 2012;55:58–67. [PubMed] 62. Sebastiani G, Halfon P, Castera L, et al. Comparison of three algorithms of non-invasive markers of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012;35:92–104. [PubMed] 63. Vergniol J, Foucher J, Terrebonne E, et al. Noninvasive tests for fibrosis and liver stiffness predict 5-year outcomes of patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology. 2011;1979;140:1970–9. e1971–1973. [PubMed] 64. Ngo Y, Munteanu M, Messous D, et al. A prospective analysis of the prognostic value of biomarkers (FibroTest) in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Clin Chem. 2006;52:1887–96. [PubMed] 65. Poynard T, Ngo Y, Munteanu M, et al. Biomarkers of liver injury for hepatitis clinical trials: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Antivir Ther. 2010;15:617–31. [PubMed] 66. Vergniol J, Foucher J, Castera L, et al. Changes of non-invasive markers and FibroScan values during HCV treatment. J Viral Hepat. 2009;16:132–40. [PubMed] 67. Thompson AJ, Muir AJ, Sulkowski MS, et al. Interleukin-28B polymorphism improves viral kinetics and is the strongest pretreatment predictor of sustained virologic response in genotype 1 hepatitis C virus. Gastroenterology. 2010;139(120–9):e118. [PubMed]
68. Poordad F, Bronowicki JP, Gordon SC, et al. IL28B polymorphism predicts virologic response in patients with hepatitis C genotype 1 treated with boceprevir combination therapy. J Hepatol. 2011;54(Suppl 1):S6.
69. Jacobson IM, Catlett I, Marcellin P, et al. Telaprevir substantially improves SVR rates across all IL28B genotypes in the ADVANCE trial. J Hepatol. 2011;54(Suppl 1):S1369.
70. Pol S, Aerssens J, Zeuzem S, et al. Similar SVR rates in IL28B CC, CT or TT prior relapser, partial- or null-responder patients treated with telaprevir/peginterferon/ribavirin: Retrospective analysis of the REALIZE study (Abstract 13) J Hepatol. 2011;54(Suppl 1):S6.
71. Mangia A, Thompson AJ, Santoro R, et al. Limited use of interleukin 28B in the setting of response-guided treatment with detailed on-treatment virological monitoring. Hepatology. 2011;54:772–80. [PubMed] 72. O’Brien TR. Interferon-alfa, interferon-lambda and hepatitis C. Nat Genet. 2009;41:1048–50. [PubMed] 73. Asselah T, De Muynck S, Broet P, et al. IL28B polymorphism is associated with treatment response in patients with genotype 4 chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol. 2012;56:527–32. [PubMed] 74. De Nicola S, Aghemo A, Grazia Rumi M, et al. Interleukin 28B polymorphism predicts pegylated interferon plus ribavirin treatment outcome in chronic hepatitis C genotype 4. Hepatology. 2012;55:336–42. [PubMed] 75. Mangia A, Thompson AJ, Santoro R, et al. An IL28B polymorphism determines treatment response of hepatitis C virus genotype 2 or 3 patients who do not achieve a rapid virologic response. Gastroenterology. 2010;139:821–7. 827 e821. [PubMed] 76. Moghaddam A, Melum E, Reinton N, et al. IL28B genetic variation and treatment response in patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 3 infection. Hepatology. 2011;53:746–54. [PubMed] 77. Poordad F, McCone J, Jr, Bacon BR, et al. Boceprevir for untreated chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. N Engl J Med. 364:1195–206. [PubMed] 81. Sarrazin C, Zeuzem S. Resistance to direct antiviral agents in patients with hepatitis C virus infection. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:447–62. [PubMed] 82. Moreno C, Deltenre P, Pawlotsky JM, Henrion J, Adler M, Mathurin P. Shortened treatment duration in treatment-naive genotype 1 HCV patients with rapid virological response: A meta-analysis. J Hepatol. 2010;52:25–31. [PubMed] 83. Jacobson IM, Marcellin P, Zeuzem S, et al. Treatment week 12/24 stopping rules for boceprevir (BOC) combination therapy with peginterferon + ribavirin (PR): Exploratory analysis of SPRINT-2 and RESPOND-2 (Abstract 954) Hepatology. 2011;54:808A. [PubMed]
84. Vierling JM, Flamm SL, Gordon SC, et al. Efficacy of boceprevir in prior null responders to peginterferon/ribavirin: The PROVIDE study (Abstract 931) Hepatology. 2011;54:796A. (Abst).
85. McHutchison JG, Manns MP, Muir AJ, et al. Telaprevir for previously treated chronic HCV infection. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:1292–303. [PubMed]
86. Berg T, McHutchison JG, Adda N, et al. SVR with telaprevir, peginterferon alfa-2a and ribavirin in HCV patietns with well-characterized prior null response, partial response, viral breakthrough or relapse after PR (Abstract 4) J Hepatol. 2010;52(Suppl 1):S2.
87. Adda N, Muir A, Adiwijaya B, et al. Response-guided telaprevir combination treatment in genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C patients who had a prior relapse to peginterferon alfa-2a/ribavirin (Abstract 26) Can J Gastroenterol. 2012;26(Suppl A):81A. (Abst).
88. Bacon BR, Gordon SC, Lawitz E, et al. Boceprevir for previously treated chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:1207–17. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
90. Sulkowski MS, Poordad F, Manns MP, et al. Anemia during treatment with peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin with or without boceprevir is associated with higher SVR rates: Analysis of previously untreated and previous treatment-failure patients (Abstract 476) J Hepatol. 2011;54(Suppl 1):S195–196.
91. Roberts S, Andreone P, Pol S, et al. Impact of anemia and ribavirin dose reduction on SVR to a telaprevir-based regimen in patients with HCV genotype 1 and prior peginterferon/ribavirin treatment failure in the phase III REALIZE study (Abstract 1368) Hepatology. 2011;54:253A. (Abst).
92. Sulkowski M, Reddy R, Afdhal NH, et al. Anemia had no effect on efficacy outcomes in treatment-naive patients who received telaprevir-based regimen in the ADVANCE and ILLUMINATE phase 3 studies (Abstract 477) J Hepatol. 2011;54(Suppl 1)
94. Poynard T, Colombo M, Bruix J, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin: effective in patients with hepatitis C who failed interferon alfa/ribavirin therapy. Gastroenterology. 2009;136:1618–28. [PubMed] 95. McHutchison JG, Manns M, Patel K, et al. Adherence to combination therapy enhances sustained response in genotype-1-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gastroenterology. 2002;123:1061–9. [PubMed]
96. Gordon SC, Lawitz EJ, Bacon BR, et al. Adherence to assigned dosing regimen and sustained virologic response among hepatitis C genotype 1 treatment-naive and PEG/ribavirin treatment-failures treated with boceprevir plus peginterferon alfa-2b/ribavirin (Abstract 428) J Hepatol. 2011;54(Suppl 1):S173. (Abst).
97. Powell EE, Jonsson JR, Clouston AD. Steatosis: Co-factor in other liver diseases. Hepatology. 2005;42:5–13. [PubMed] 98. Manns MP, McHutchison JG, Gordon SC, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin compared with interferon alfa-2b plus ribavirin for initial treatment of chronic hepatitis C: A randomised trial. Lancet. 2001;358:958–65. [PubMed] 99. Fried MW, Shiffman ML, Reddy KR, et al. Peginterferon alfa-2a plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. N Engl J Med. 2002;347:975–982. [PubMed] 100. Hickman IJ, Clouston AD, Macdonald GA, et al. Effect of weight reduction on liver histology and biochemistry in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Gut. 2002;51:89–94. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 101. Pockros PJ, Shiffman ML, Schiff ER, et al. Epoetin alfa improves quality of life in anemic HCV-infected patients receiving combination therapy. Hepatology. 2004;40:1450–8. [PubMed] 102. Afdhal NH, Dieterich DT, Pockros PJ, et al. Epoetin alfa maintains ribavirin dose in HCV-infected patients: A prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled study. Gastroenterology. 2004;126:1302–11. [PubMed] 103. Cooper CL, Al-Bedwawi S, Lee C, Garber G. Rate of infectious complications during interferon-based therapy for hepatitis C is not related to neutropenia. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:1674–8. [PubMed] 104. Soza A, Everhart JE, Ghany MG, et al. Neutropenia during combination therapy of interferon alfa and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2002;36:1273–9. [PubMed] 105. Tandon P, Doucette K, Fassbender K, Vandermeer B, Durec T, Dryden DM. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for hepatitis C therapy-associated neutropenia: Systematic review and economic evaluation. J Viral Hepat. 18:e381–93. [PubMed] 106. Louie KS, Micallef JM, Pimenta JM, Forssen UM. Prevalence of thrombocytopenia among patients with chronic hepatitis C: A systematic review. J Viral Hepat. 2011;18:1–7. [PubMed] 107. Giannini EG, Savarino V. Epidemiology of thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic hepatitis C: More than meets the eye. J Viral Hepatol. 2011;18:8–10. [PubMed] 108. Roomer R, Hansen BE, Janssen HL, de Knegt RJ. Thrombocytopenia and the risk of bleeding during treatment with peginterferon alfa and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C. J Hepatol. 2010;53:455–9. [PubMed] 109. Iga D, Tomimatsu M, Endo H, Ohkawa S, Yamada O. Improvement of thrombocytopenia with disappearance of HCV RNA in patients treated by interferon-alpha therapy: Possible etiology of HCV-associated immune thrombocytopenia. Eur J Haematol. 2005;75:417–23. [PubMed] 110. McHutchison JG, Dusheiko G, Shiffman ML, et al. Eltrombopag for thrombocytopenia in patients with cirrhosis associated with hepatitis C. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:2227–36. [PubMed]
111. Afdhal N, Dusheiko G, Giannini EG, et al. Final results of ENABLE 2, a phase 3, multicenter study of eltrombopag as an adjunct for antiviral treatment of hepatitis C virus-related chronic liver disease associated with thrombocytopenia (Abstract LB-3) Hepatology. 2011;54(4 Suppl):1427A. (Abst).
112. Arteh J, Narra S, Nair S. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in chronic liver disease. Dig Dis Sci. 2010;55:2624–2628. [PubMed] 113. Cacopardo B, Camma C, Petta S, et al. Diagnostic and therapeutical role of vitamin D in chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Front Biosci (Elite Ed) 2012;4:1276–86. [PubMed] 114. Petta S, Camma C, Scazzone C, et al. Low vitamin D serum level is related to severe fibrosis and low responsiveness to interferon-based therapy in genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2010;51:1158–67. [PubMed] 115. Bitetto D, Fattovich G, Fabris C, et al. Complementary role of vitamin D deficiency and the interleukin-28B rs12979860 C/T polymorphism in predicting antiviral response in chronic hepatitis C. Hepatology. 2011;53:1118–26. [PubMed] 116. Bitetto D, Fabris C, Fornasiere E, et al. Vitamin D supplementation improves response to antiviral treatment for recurrent hepatitis C. Transpl Int. 2011;24:43–50. [PubMed] 117. Sylvestre DL, Litwin AH, Clements BJ, Gourevitch MN. The impact of barriers to hepatitis C virus treatment in recovering heroin users maintained on methadone. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2005;29:159–65. [PubMed] 118. Strathdee SA, Latka M, Campbell J, et al. Factors associated with interest in initiating treatment for hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection among young HCV-infected injection drug users. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40(Suppl 5):S304–12. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 119. Mehta SH, Genberg BL, Astemborski J, et al. Limited uptake of hepatitis C treatment among injection drug users. J Community Health. 2008;33:126–33. [PubMed] 120. Grebely J, Raffa JD, Lai C, Krajden M, Kerr T, Fischer B, Tyndall MW. Low uptake of treatment for hepatitis C virus infection in a large community-based study of inner city residents. J Viral Hepatol. 2009;16:352–8. [PubMed] 121. Mauss S, Berger F, Goelz J, Jacob B, Schmutz G. A prospective controlled study of interferon-based therapy of chronic hepatitis C in patients on methadone maintenance. Hepatology. 2004;40:120–4. [PubMed] 122. Grebely J, Raffa JD, Meagher C, et al. Directly observed therapy for the treatment of hepatitis C virus infection in current and former injection drug users. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;22:1519–25. [PubMed] 123. Jeffrey GP, MacQuillan G, Chua F, et al. Hepatitis C virus eradication in intravenous drug users maintained with subcutaneous naltrexone implants. Hepatology. 2007;45:111–7. [PubMed] 124. Hellard M, Sacks-Davis R, Gold J. Hepatitis C treatment for injection drug users: A review of the available evidence. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;49:561–73. [PubMed] 125. Mehta SH, Cox A, Hoover DR, et al. Protection against persistence of hepatitis C. Lancet. 2002;359:1478–83. [PubMed] 126. Backmund M, Meyer K, Edlin BR. Infrequent reinfection after successful treatment for hepatitis C virus infection in injection drug users. Clin Infect Dis. 2004;39:1540–3. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 127. Grebely J, Conway B, Raffa JD, Lai C, Krajden M, Tyndall MW. Hepatitis C virus reinfection in injection drug users. Hepatology. 2006;44:1139–45. [PubMed] 128. Dieterich DT, Soriano V, Sherman KE, et al. Telaprevir in combination with pegylated interferon-a-2a+RBV in HCV/HIV-co-infected patients: A 24 week treatment interim analysis (19th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections 2012, Abstract 46) < www.retroconference.org/2012b/Abstracts/42969.htm> (Accessed March 8, 2012). 129. Sulkowski M, Pol S, Fainboim H, et al. Boceprevir + pegylated interferon + ribavirin for the treatment of HCV/HIV-co-infected patients: end of treatment (week-48) interim results (19th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections 2012, Abstract 47) < www.retroconference.org/2012b/Abstracts/44725.htm> (Accessed March 8, 2012).