1. Mathers CD, Loncar D. Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030. PLoS Medicine. 2006;3(11):2011–2030. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 2. Jha P, Ranson MK, Nguyen SN, Yach D. Estimates of global and regional smoking prevalence in 1995, by age and sex. American Journal of Public Health. 2002;92(6):1002–1006. [PubMed]
3. Lopez AD, Collishaw NE, Piha T. A descriptive model of the cigarette epidemic in developed countries. Tobacco Control. 1994;3:242–247.
5. Health Organization World. WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2008: The MPOWER Package. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2008.
6. for Healthcare Research and Quality Agency. Methods Guide for Effectiveness and Comparative Effectiveness Reviews. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Rockville, Md, USA, AHRQ Publication No. 10(11)-EHC063-EF, March 2011, http://www.effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/methodsguide.cfm. 7. Nonnemaker JM, Farrelly MC. Smoking initiation among youth: the role of cigarette excise taxes and prices by race/ethnicity and gender. Journal of Health Economics. 2011;30(3):560–567. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 8. Sen A, Wirjanto T. Estimating the impacts of cigarette taxes on youth smoking participation, initiation, and persistence: empirical evidence from Canada. Health Economics. 2010;19(11):1264–1280. [PubMed] 9. Cawley J, Markowitz S, Tauras J. Lighting up and slimming down: the effects of body weight and cigarette prices on adolescent smoking initiation. Journal of Health Economics. 2004;23(2):293–311. [PubMed] 10. Tauras JA. Can public policy deter smoking escalation among young adults? Journal of Policy Analysis and Management. 2005;24(4):771–784. [PubMed]
11. DeCicca P, Kenkel D, Mathios A. Putting out the fires: will higher taxes reduce the onset of youth smoking? Journal of Political Economy. 2002;110(1):144–169.
12. Tauras JA, Chaloupka FJ. Determinants of smoking cessation: an analysis of young adult men and women. NBER Working Paper No. 7262, 1999.
13. Grossman M. Individual behaviours and substance use: the role of price. Advances in Health Economics and Health Services Research. 2005;16:15–39. [PubMed]
14. Tauras JA, Chaloupka FJ. Price, clean indoor air, cigarette smoking: evidence from longitudinal data for young adults. NBER Working Paper No. 6937, 1999.
15. Kostova D, Ross H, Blecher E, Markowitz S. Is youth smoking responsive to cigarette prices? Evidence from low- and middle-income countries. Tobacco Control. 2011;20:419–424. [PubMed] 16. White VM, Warne CD, Spittal MJ, Durkin S, Purcell K, Wakefield MA. What impact have tobacco control policies, cigarette price and tobacco control programme funding had on Australian adolescents’ smoking? Findings over a 15-year period. Addiction. 2011;106(8):1493–1502. [PubMed] 17. Carpenter C, Cook PJ. Cigarette taxes and youth smoking: new evidence from national, state, and local Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. Journal of Health Economics. 2008;27(2):287–299. [PubMed] 18. Ding A. Youth are more sensitive to price changes in cigarettes than adults. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine. 2003;76(1–6):115–124. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 19. Waller BJ, Cohen JE, Ferrence R, Bull S, Adlaf EM. The early 1990s cigarette price decrease and trends in youth smoking in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Public Health. 2003;94(1):31–35. [PubMed]
20. Gruber J. Youth smoking in the US: prices and policies. NBER Working Paper No. 7506, 2000.
21. Chaloupka FJ, Pacula RL. Limiting youth access to tobacco: the early impact of the synar amendment on youth smoking. Working Paper, Department of Economics, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1998.
22. Ross H, Blecher E, Yan L, Hyland A. Do cigarette prices motivate smokers to quit? New evidence from the ITC survey. Addiction. 2011;106(3):609–619. [PubMed] 23. Saenz-de-Miera B, Thrasher JF, Chaloupka FJ, Waters HR, Hernandez-Avila M, Fong GT. Self-reported price of cigarettes, consumption and compensatory behaviours in a cohort of Mexican smokers before and after a cigarette tax increase. Tobacco control. 2010;19(6):481–487. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 24. Hanewinkel R, Isensee B. Five in a row - Reactions of smokers to tobacco tax increases: population-based cross-sectional studies in Germany 2001–2006. Tobacco Control. 2007;16(1):34–37. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 25. Franz GA. Price effects on the smoking behaviour of adult age groups. Public Health. 2008;122(12):1343–1348. [PubMed] 26. Reed MB, Anderson CM, Vaughn JW, Burns DM. The effect of cigarette price increases on smoking cessation in California. Prevention Science. 2008;9(1):47–54. [PubMed] 27. Wakefield MA, Durkin S, Spittal MJ, et al. Impact of tobacco control policies and mass media campaigns on monthly adult smoking prevalence. American Journal of Public Health. 2008;98(8):1443–1450. [PubMed] 28. Azagba S, Sharaf M. Cigarette taxes and smoking participation: evidence from recent tax increases in Canada. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2011;8(5):1583–1600. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 29. Lance PM, Akin JS, Dow WH, Loh CP. Is cigarette smoking in poorer nations highly sensitive to price? Evidence from Russia and China. Journal of Health Economics. 2004;23(1):173–189. [PubMed] 30. Siahpush M, Wakefield MA, Spittal MJ, Durkin SJ, Scollo MM. Taxation reduces social disparities in adult smoking prevalence. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2009;36(4):285–291. [PubMed] 31. DeCicca P, McLeod L. Cigarette taxes and older adult smoking: evidence from recent large tax increases. Journal of Health Economics. 2008;27(4):918–929. [PubMed] 32. Franks P, Jerant AF, Leigh JP, et al. Cigarette prices, smoking, and the poor: implications of recent trends. American Journal of Public Health. 2007;97(10):1873–1877. [PubMed] 33. Sloan FA, Trogdon JG. The impact of the master settlement agreement on cigarette consumption. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management. 2004;23(4):843–855. [PubMed] 34. Gallus S, Fernandez E, Townsend J, Schiaffino A, La Vecchia C. Price and consumption of tobacco in Italy over the last three decades. European Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2003;12(4):333–337. [PubMed] 35. Scollo M, Younie S, Wakefield M, Freeman J, Icasiano F. Impact of tobacco tax reforms on tobacco prices and tobacco use in Australia. Tobacco Control. 2003;12(supplement 2):59–66. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 36. van Walbeek C. Recent trends in smoking prevalence in South Africa—some evidence from AMPS data. South African Medical Journal. 2002;92(6):468–472. [PubMed]
37. Farrelly MC, Bray JW, Pechacek T, Woollery T. Response by adults to increases in cigarette prices by sociodemographic characteristics. Southern Economic Journal. 2001;68(1):156–165.
38. Bogdanovica I, Murray R, McNeill A, Britton J. Cigarette price, affordability and smoking prevalence in the European Union. Addiction. 2012;107:188–196. [PubMed] 39. Jimenez-Ruiz JA, Saenz de Miera B, Reynales-Shigematsu LM, Waters HR, Hernandez-Avila M. The impact of taxation on tobacco consumption in Mexico. Tobacco Control. 2008;17:105–110. [PubMed] 40. Hu TW, Mao Z, Shi J, Chen W. The role of taxation in tobacco control and its potential economic impact in China. Tobacco Control. 2010;19(1):58–64. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 41. Hawkins SS, Cole TJ, Law C. Examining smoking behaviours among parents from the UK millennium cohort study after the smoke-free legislation in Scotland. Tobacco Control. 2011;20(2):112–118. [PubMed]
42. Klein EG. The unintended consequences of clean indoor air policies in Minnesota. Dissertation Abstracts International B. 2008;68(9)
43. Biener L, Hamilton WL, Siegel M, Sullivan EM. Individual, Social-normative, and policy predictors of smoking cessation: a multilevel longitudinal analysis. American Journal of Public Health. 2010;100(3):547–554. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 44. Hyland A, Hassan LM, Higbee C, et al. The impact of smokefree legislation in Scotland: results from the Scottish ITC Scotland/UK longitudinal surveys. European Journal of Public Health. 2009;19(2):198–205. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 45. Bauza-Amengual MdeL, Blasco-Gonzalez M, Sanchez-Vazquez E, Pereiro-Berenguer I, Ruiz-Varea N, Pericas-Beltran J. Impact of the Tobacco Law on the workplace: a follow up study of a cohort of workers in Spain 2005–2007. Aten Primaria. 2010;42:309–313. [PubMed] 46. Murphy JM, De Moreno SL, Cummings KM, Hyland A, Mahoney MC. Changes in cigarette smoking, purchase patterns, and cessation-related behaviors among low-income smokers in New York state from 2002 to 2005. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice. 2010;16(4):277–284. [PubMed] 47. Orbell S, Lidierth P, Henderson CJ, et al. Social-cognitive beliefs, alcohol, and tobacco use: a prospective community study of change following a ban on smoking in public places. Health Psychology. 2009;28(6):753–761. [PubMed] 48. Martinez-Sanchez JM, Fernandez E, Fu M, et al. Impact of the Spanish smoking law in smoker hospitality workers. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2009;11:1099–1106. [PubMed] 49. Fowkes FJI, Stewart MCW, Fowkes FGR, Amos A, Price JF. Scottish smoke-free legislation and trends in smoking cessation. Addiction. 2008;103(11):1888–1895. [PubMed] 50. De Chaisemartin C, Geoffard PY, Le Faou AL. Workplace smoking ban effects on unhappy smokers. Health Economics. 2011;20:1043–1055. [PubMed] 51. Hahn EJ, Rayens MK, Ridner SL, Butler KM, Zhang M, Staten RR. Smoke-free laws and smoking and drinking among college students. Journal of Community Health. 2010;35(5):503–511. [PubMed] 52. Hahn EJ, Rayens MK, Butler KM, Zhang M, Durbin E, Steinke D. Smoke-free laws and adult smoking prevalence. Preventive Medicine. 2008;47(2):206–209. [PubMed] 53. Lemstra M, Neudorf C, Opondo J. Implications of a public smoking ban. Canadian Journal of Public Health. 2008;99(1):62–65. [PubMed] 54. Klein EG, Forster JL, Erickson DJ, Lytle LA, Schillo B. The relationship between local clean indoor air policies and smoking behaviours in minnesota youth. Tobacco Control. 2009;18(2):132–137. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 55. Gallus S, Zuccaro P, Colombo P, et al. Effects of new smoking regulations in Italy. Annals of Oncology. 2006;17(2):346–347. [PubMed] 56. Guerrero F, Santonja FJ, Villanueva RJ. Analysing the Spanish smoke-free legislation of 2006: a new method to quantify its impact using a dynamic model. International Journal of Drug Policy. 2011;22(4):247–251. [PubMed] 57. Mackay DF, Haw S, Pell JP. Impact of Scottish smoke-free legislation on smoking quit attempts and prevalence. PLoS One. 2011;6 Article ID e26188. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 58. Mullally BJ, Greiner BA, Allwright S, Paul G, Perry IJ. The effect of the Irish smoke-free workplace legislation on smoking among bar workers. European Journal of Public Health. 2009;19(2):206–211. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 59. Galan I, Mata N, Estrada C, et al. Impact of the “Tobacco control law” on exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in Spain. BMC Public Health. 2007;7, article 224 [PMC free article] [PubMed] 60. Haw SJ, Gruer L. Changes in exposure of adult non-smokers to secondhand smoke after implementation of smoke-free legislation in Scotland: National Cross sectional survey. British Medical Journal. 2007;335(7619):549–552. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 61. Lee JT, Glantz SA, Millett C. Effect of smoke-free legislation on adult smoking behaviour in England in the 18 months following implementation. PLoS One. 2011;6(6) Article ID e20933. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 62. Elton PJ, Campbell P. Smoking prevalence in a north-west town following the introduction of Smoke-free England. Journal of Public Health. 2008;30(4):415–420. [PubMed] 63. Anger S, Kvasnicka M, Siedler T. One last puff? Public smoking bans and smoking behavior. Journal of Health Economics. 2011;30(3):591–601. [PubMed] 64. Verdonk-Kleinjan WM, Candel MJ, Knibbe RA, Willemsen MC, de Vries H. Effects of a workplace-smoking ban in combination with tax increases on smoking in the Dutch population. Nicotine & Tobacco Research. 2011;13:412–418. [PubMed] 65. Bitler MP, Carpenter C, Zavodny M. Smoking restrictions in bars and bartender smoking in the US, 1992–2007. Tobacco Control. 2011;20(3):196–200. [PubMed] 66. Bitler MP, Carpenter CS, Zavodny M. Effects of venue-specific state clean indoor air laws on smoking-related outcomes. Health Economics. 2010;19(12):1425–1440. [PubMed] 67. Galduróz JCF, Fonseca AM, Noto AR, Carlini EA. Decrease in tobacco use among Brazilian students: a possible consequence of the ban on cigarette advertising? Addictive Behaviors. 2007;32(6):1309–1313. [PubMed] 68. Fielding R, Chee YY, Choi KM, et al. Declines in tobacco brand recognition and ever-smoking rates among young children following restrictions on tobacco advertisements in Hong Kong. Journal of Public Health. 2004;26(1):24–30. [PubMed] 69. Borland R. Tobacco health warnings and smoking-related cognitions and behaviours. Addiction. 1997;92(11):1427–1435. [PubMed] 70. Borland R, Yong HH, Wilson N, et al. How reactions to cigarette packet health warnings influence quitting: findings from the ITC Four-Country survey. Addiction. 2009;104(4):669–675. [PubMed]
71. Gospodinov N, Irvine IJ. Global health warnings on tobacco packaging: evidence from the Canadian experiment. Topics in Economic Analysis and Policy. 2004;4(1):829–851.
72. Linkenbach JW, Perkins HW. MOST of us are tobacco free: an eight-month social norms campaign reducing youth initiation of smoking in Montana. In: Perkins HW, editor. The Social Norms Approach to Preventing School and College Age Substance Abuse: A Handbook for Educators, Counselors, and Clinicians. San Francisco, Calif, USA: Jossey-Bass; 2003. pp. 224–234.
73. Flynn BS, Worden JK, Secker-Walker RH, Pirie PL, Badger GJ, Carpenter JH. Long-term responses of higher and lower risk youths to smoking prevention interventions. Preventive Medicine. 1997;26(3):389–394. [PubMed] 74. Hafstad A, Aarø LE, Engeland A, Andersen A, Langmark F, Stray-Pedersen B. Provocative appeals in anti-smoking mass media campaigns targeting adolescents—the accumulated effect of multiple exposures. Health Education Research. 1997;12(2):227–236. [PubMed] 75. Farrelly MC, Nonnemaker J, Davis KC, Hussin A. The influence of the National Truth campaign on smoking initiation. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2009;36(5):379–384. [PubMed] 76. Ronda G, Van Assema P, Candel M, et al. The Dutch Heart Health Community Intervention “Hartslag Limburg”: effects on smoking behaviour. European Journal of Public Health. 2004;14(2):191–193. [PubMed] 77. Steenkamp HJ, Jooste PL, Jordaan PCJ, Swanepoel ASP, Rossouw JE. Changes in smoking during a community-based cardiovascular disease intervention programme. The Coronary Risk Factor Study. South African Medical Journal. 1991;79(5):250–253. [PubMed] 78. Farrelly MC, Davis KC, Haviland ML, Messeri P, Healton CG. Evidence of a dose-response relationship between “truth” antismoking ads and youth smoking prevalence. American Journal of Public Health. 2005;95(3):425–431. [PubMed] 79. Sly DF, Heald GR, Ray S. The Florida “truth” anti-tobacco media evaluation: design, first year results, and implications for planning future state media evaluations. Tobacco Control. 2001;10(1):9–15. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 80. Solomon LJ, Bunn JY, Flynn BS, Pirie PL, Worden JK, Ashikaga T. Mass media for smoking cessation in adolescents. Health Education and Behavior. 2009;36(4):642–659. [PubMed] 81. Terry-McElrath YM, Emery S, Wakefield MA, O’Malley PM, Szczypka G, Johnston LD. Effects of tobacco-related media campaigns on smoking among 20–30-year-old adults: longitudinal data from the USA. Tobacco Control. In press. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 82. Burns EK, Levinson AH. Reaching spanish-speaking smokers: state-level evidence of untapped potential for quitLine utilization. American Journal of Public Health. 2010;100(1):S165–S170. [PubMed] 83. Flynn BS, Worden JK, Bunn JY, et al. Mass media interventions to reduce youth smoking prevalence. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2010;39(1):53–62. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
84. Arunatilake N. An economic analysis of tobacco demand in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka Economic Journal. 2002;3(1):96–120.
85. Chaloupka FJ, Hu T, Warner KE, Jacobs R, Yurekli A. The taxation of tobacco products. In: Jha P, Chaloupka F, editors. Tobacco Control in Developing Countries. New York, NY, USA: Oxford University Press; 2000. pp. 237–272.
86. IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention, Tobacco Control, Vol. 13: Evaluating the effectiveness of smoke-free policies. Lyon, France: International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2009.
87. of Medicine Institute. Secondhand Smoke Exposure and Cardiovascular Effects: Making Sense of the Evidence. Washington, DC, USA: The National Academies Press; 2009.
88. Warner K. Tobacco Control Policy. San Francisco, Calif, USA: Jossey-Bass; 2006.
89. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service Centers for Disease Control and Prevention US. Preventing tobacco use among young people: a report of the Surgeon General. Washington, DC, USA: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.
90. Cancer Institute National. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 14. US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health: Bethesda, Md, USA.
91. DiFranza JR, Wellman RJ, Sargent JD, Weitzman M, Hipple BJ, Winickoff JP. Tobacco promotion and the initiation of tobacco use: assessing the evidence for causality. Pediatrics. 2006;117(6):e1237–e1248. [PubMed] 92. Brown A, Moodie C. The influence of tobacco marketing on adolescent smoking intentions via normative beliefs. Health Education Research. 2009;24(4):721–733. [PubMed] 93. Wellman RJ, Sugarman DB, DiFranza JR, Winickoff JP. The extent to which tobacco marketing and tobacco use in films contribute to children’s use of tobacco: a meta-analysis. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine. 2006;160(12):1285–1296. [PubMed] 94. Saffer H, Chaloupka F. The effect of tobacco advertising bans on tobacco consumption. Journal of Health Economics. 2000;19(6):1117–1137. [PubMed] 95. Hammond D, Fong GT, McNeill A, Borland R, Cummings KM. Effectiveness of cigarette warning labels in informing smokers about the risks of smoking: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey. Tobacco Control. 2006;15(3):19–25. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 96. Hammond D, Fong GT, Borland R, Cummings KM, McNeill A, Driezen P. Text and graphic warnings on cigarette packages: findings from the international tobacco control four country study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2007;32(3):202–209. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
97. of Medicine Institute. Ending the Tobacco Problem: A Blueprint for the Nation. Washington, DC, USA: The National Academies Press; 2007.
98. Thrasher JF, Hammond D, Fong GT, Arillo-Santillán E. Smokers’ reactions to cigarette package warnings with graphic imagery and with only text: a comparison between Mexico and Canada. Salud Publica de Mexico. 2007;49(2):S233–S240. [PubMed] 99. Hammond D, McDonald PW, Fong GT, Brown KS, Cameron R. The impact of cigarette warning labels and smoke-free bylaws on smoking cessation: evidence from former smokers. Canadian Journal of Public Health. 2004;95(3):201–204. [PubMed] 100. White V, Webster B, Wakefield M. Do graphic health warning labels have an impact on adolescents’ smoking-related beliefs and behaviours? Addiction. 2008;103(9):1562–1571. [PubMed] 101. Hammond D, Fong GT, McDonald PW, Cameron R, Brown KS. Impact of the graphic Canadian warning labels on adult smoking behaviour. Tobacco Control. 2003;12(4):391–395. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 102. Fathelrahman AI, Omar M, Awang R, et al. Smokers’ responses toward cigarette pack warning labels in predicting quit intention, stage of change, and self-efficacy. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 2009;11(3):248–253. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
103. Cancer Institute National. The Role of the Media in Promoting and Reducing Tobacco Use. Bethesda, Md, USA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute; 2008. (Tobacco Control Monograph No. 19).
104. Wakefield M, Flay B, Nichter M, Giovino G. Role of the media in influencing trajectories of youth smoking. Addiction. 2003;98(1):79–103. [PubMed] 105. Farrelly MC, Niederdeppe J, Yarsevich J. Youth tobacco prevention mass media campaigns: past, present, and future directions. Tobacco Control. 2003;12:35–47. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 106. Farrelly MC, Healton CG, Davis KC, Messeri P, Hersey JC, Haviland ML. Getting to the truth: evaluating national tobacco countermarketing campaigns. American Journal of Public Health. 2002;92(6):901–907. [PubMed] 107. Hopkins DP, Briss PA, Ricard CJ, et al. Reviews of evidence regarding interventions to reduce tobacco use and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (Structured abstract) American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2001;20(2):16–66. [PubMed] 108. Bala M, Strzeszynski L, Cahill K. Mass media interventions for smoking cessation in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2008;(1) Article ID CD004704. [PubMed]
109. Cancer Institute National. Evaluating ASSIST: A Blueprint for Understanding State-level Tobacco Control. Bethesda, Md, USA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute; 2006. (Tobacco Control Monograph No. 17).
110. Frieden TR, Mostashari F, Kerker BD, Miller N, Hajat A, Frankel M. Adult tobacco use levels after intensive tobacco control measures: New York City, 2002-2003. American Journal of Public Health. 2005;95(6):1016–1023. [PubMed]
111. Department of Public Health and California Tobacco Control Program California. California Tobacco Control Update 2009: 20 Years of Tobacco Control in California. Sacramento, Calif, USA, 2009.
112. Levy DT, Mumford EA, Gerlowski DA. Examining trends in quantity smoked. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 2007;9(12):1287–1296. [PubMed] 113. Sung HY, Hu TW, Ong M, Keeler TE, Sheu ML. A major state tobacco tax increase, the master settlement agreement, and cigarette consumption: the California experience. American Journal of Public Health. 2005;95(6):1030–1035. [PubMed] 114. Stehr M. Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion. Journal of Health Economics. 2005;24(2):277–297. [PubMed] 115. Response to increases in cigarette prices by race/ethnicity, income, and age groups—United States, 1976–1993. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 1998;47:605–609. [PubMed] 116. Meier KJ, Licari MJ. The effect of cigarette taxes on cigarette consumption, 1955 through 1994. American Journal of Public Health. 1997;87(7):1126–1130. [PubMed] 117. Hu TW, Sung HY, Keeler TE. Reducing cigarette consumption in California: tobacco taxes vs an anti-smoking media campaign. American Journal of Public Health. 1995;85(9):1218–1222. [PubMed] 118. Keeler TE, Hu TW, Barnett PG, Manning WG. Taxation, regulation, and addiction: a demand function for cigarettes based on time-series evidence. Journal of Health Economics. 1993;12(1):1–18. [PubMed] 119. Flewelling RL, Kenney E, Elder JP, Pierce J, Johnson M, Bal DG. First-year impact of the 1989 California cigarette tax increase on cigarette consumption. American Journal of Public Health. 1992;82(6):867–869. [PubMed] 120. Peterson DE, Zeger SL, Remington PL, Anderson HA. The effect of state cigarette tax increases on cigarette sales, 1955 to 1988. American Journal of Public Health. 1992;82(1):94–96. [PubMed] 121. Hu TW, Sung HY, Keeler TE. The state antismoking campaign and the industry response: the effects of advertising on cigarette consumption in California. The American economic review. 1995;85(2):85–90. [PubMed]
122. Sung H-Y, Hu T-W, Keeler TE. Cigarette taxation and demand: an empirical model. Contemporary Economic Policy. 1994;12(3):91–100.
123. Keeler TE, Hu TW, Manning WG, Sung HY. State tobacco taxation, education and smoking: controlling for the effects of omitted variables. National Tax Journal. 2001;54(1):83–102.
124. Keeler TE, Hu TW, Ong M, Sung HY. The US national Tobacco Settlement: the effects of advertising and price changes on cigarette consumption. Applied Economics. 2004;36(15):1623–1629.
125. Baltagi BH, Levin D. Cigarette taxation: raising revenues and reducing consumption. Structural Change and Economic Dynamics. 1992;3(2):321–335.
126. Blecher E. The impact of tobacco advertising bans on consumption in developing countries. Journal of Health Economics. 2008;27(4):930–942. [PubMed]
127. Stewart MJ. The effect on tobacco consumption of advertising bans in OECD countries. International Journal of Advertising. 1993;12(2):155–181.
128. Guindon E, Perucic AM, Boisclair D. Higher tobacco prices and taxes in South-east Asia: an effective tool to reduce tobacco use, save lives and generate revenue. World Bank. Health, Nutrition and Population Discussion Paper 11. Economics of Tobacco Control, 2003.
129. Farrelly MC, Nimsch CT, Hyland A, Cummings M. The effects of higher cigarette prices on tar and nicotine consumption in a cohort of adult smokers. Health Economics. 2004;13(1):49–58. [PubMed] 130. Gruber J, Sen A, Stabile M. Estimating price elasticities when there is smuggling: the sensitivity of smoking to price in Canada. Journal of Health Economics. 2003;22(5):821–842. [PubMed] 131. Galbraith JW, Kaiserman M. Taxation, smuggling and demand for cigarettes in Canada: evidence from time-series data. Journal of Health Economics. 1997;16(3):287–301. [PubMed] 132. Mummery WK, Hagen LC. Tobacco pricing, taxation, consumption and revenue: Alberta 1985–1995. Canadian Journal of Public Health. 1996;87(5):314–316. [PubMed]
133. Reinhardt FS, Giles DEA. Are cigarette bans really good economic policy? Applied Economics. 2001;33(11):1365–1368.
134. Bardsley P, Olekalns N. Cigarette and tobacco consumption: have anti-smoking policies made a difference? Economic Record. 1999;75(230):225–240.
135. Szilágyi T. Higher cigarette Taxes—healthier people, wealthier state: the Hungarian experience. Central European Journal of Public Health. 2007;15(3):122–126. [PubMed] 136. Hanewinkel R, Radden C, Rosenkranz T. Price increase causes fewer sales of factory-made cigarettes and higher sales of cheaper loose tobacco in Germany. Health Economics. 2008;17(6):683–693. [PubMed] 137. Lee JM, Liao DS, Ye CY, Liao WZ. Effect of cigarette tax increase on cigarette consumption in Taiwan. Tobacco Control. 2005;14(1):71–75. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 138. Fernandez E, Gallus S, Schiaffino A, et al. Price and consumption of tobacco in Spain over the period 1965–2000. European Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2004;13:207–211. [PubMed] 139. Borren P, Sutton M. Are increases in cigarette taxation regressive? Health economics. 1992;1(4):245–253. [PubMed] 140. Chapman S, Richardson J. Tobacco excise and declining tobacco consumption: the case of Papua New Guinea. American Journal of Public Health. 1990;80(5):537–540. [PubMed]
141. Mao ZZ, Xiang JL, Kon ZP. Demand for cigarette and pricing policy. Chinese Health Economics. 1997;16(6):50–52.
142. Djutaharta T, Viriya-Surya H, Haidy N, Pasay A, Moertiningsih-Adioetomo H, Moertiningsih-Adioetomo S. Aggregate analysis of the impact of cigarette tax rate increases on tobacco consumption and governement revenue. The case of Indonesia. HNP Discussion Paper. Economics of Tobacco Control. Indonesia: World Bank, Paper No. 25, 2005.
143. Michie S, van Stralen MM, West R. The behaviour change wheel: a new method for characterising and designing behaviour change interventions. Implementation Science. 2011;6(1, article no. 42) [PMC free article] [PubMed] 144. Gospodinov N, Irvine I. Tobacco taxes and regressivity. Journal of Health Economics. 2009;28(2):375–384. [PubMed] 145. Bauman KE, LaPrelle J, Brown JD, Koch GG, Padgett CA. The influence of three mass media campaigns on variables related to adolescent cigarette smoking: results of a field experiment. American Journal of Public Health. 1991;81(5):597–604. [PubMed] 146. Durkin SJ, Biener L, Wakefield MA. Effects of different types of antismoking ads on reducing disparities in smoking cessation among socioeconomic subgroups. American Journal of Public Health. 2009;99(12):2217–2223. [PMC free article] [PubMed] 147. Hyland A, Wakefield M, Higbee C, Szczypka G, Cummings KM. Anti-tobacco television advertising and indicators of smoking cessation in adults: a cohort study. Health Education Research. 2006;21(3):348–354. [PubMed] 148. McVey D, Stapleton J. Can anti-smoking television advertising affect smoking behaviour? Controlled trial of the health education authority for England’s anti-smoking TV campaign. Tobacco Control. 2000;9(3):273–282. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
149. Flynn BS, Worden JK, Secker-Walker RH, Badger GJ, Geller BM. Cigarette smoking prevention effects of mass media and school interventions targeted to gender and age groups. Journal of Health Education. 1995;26(2):S45–S51.
150. Worden JK, Flynn BS, Solomon LJ, Secker-Walker RH, Badger GJ, Carpenter JH. Using mass media to prevent cigarette smoking among adolescent girls. Health Education and Behavior. 1996;23(4):453–468. [PubMed] 151. Flynn BS, Worden JK, Secker-Walker RH, Badger GJ, Geller BM, Costanza MC. Prevention of cigarette smoking through mass media intervention and school programs. American Journal of Public Health. 1992;82(6):827–834. [PubMed] 152. Flynn BS, Worden JK, Secker-Walker RH, et al. Mass media and school interventions for cigarette smoking prevention: effects 2 years after completion. American Journal of Public Health. 1994;84(7):1148–1150. [PubMed]
153. Worden JK, Flynn BS. Using mass media to prevent cigarette smoking. In: Hornik RC, editor. Public Health Communication: Evidence for Behavior Change. Mahwah, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 2002. pp. 23–33.
154. Meshack AF, Hu S, Pallonen UE, McAlister AL, Gottlieb N, Huang P. Texas tobacco prevention pilot initiative: processes and effects. Health Education Research. 2004;19(6):657–668. [PubMed]