This paper describes some physical, structural, and biological properties of gypsum bioceramics doped with various amounts of strontium ions (0.19–2.23wt%) and compares these properties with those of a pure gypsum as control. Strontium-doped gypsum (gypsum:Sr) was obtained by mixing calcium sulfate hemihydrate powder and solutions of strontium nitrate followed by washing the specimens with distilled water to remove residual salts. Gypsum was the only phase found in the composition of both pure and gypsum:Sr, meanwhile a shift into lower diffraction angles was observed in the X-ray diffraction patterns of doped specimens. Microstructure of all gypsum specimens consisted of many rod-like small crystals entangled to each other with more elongation and higher thickness in the case of gypsum:Sr. The Sr-doped sample exhibited higher compressive strength and lower solubility than pure gypsum. A continuous release of strontium ions was observed from the gypsum:Sr during soaking it in simulated body fluid for 14 days. Compared to pure gypsum, the osteoblasts cultured on strontium-doped samples showed better proliferation rate and higher alkaline phosphatase activity, depending on Sr concentration. These observations can predict better in vivo behavior of strontium-doped gypsum compared to pure one.