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Logo of nihpaAbout Author manuscriptsSubmit a manuscriptHHS Public Access; Author Manuscript; Accepted for publication in peer reviewed journal;
 
From:
Hum Genet. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2012 June 13.
Published in final edited form as:
Hum Genet. 2012 May; 131(5): 739–746.
Published online 2011 November 25. doi: 10.1007/s00439-011-1117-3

Table 1

Characteristics of omphalocele case and control groups.

CharacteristicCases (N = 169)aControls (N = 761)aP valueb
Maternal race/ethnicity0.91
 White, Non-Hispanic85 (50.30)380 (49.93)
 African-American47 (27.81)195 (25.62)
 Hispanic27 (15.98)142 (18.66)
 Asian8 (4.73)36 (4.73)
 Other2 (1.18)8 (1.05)
Maternal age (years)0.38
 <2011 (6.51)75 (9.86)
 20 – 34125 (73.96)552 (72.54)
 ≥ 3533 (19.53)134 (17.61)
Maternal education (years)0.09
 <1223 (13.61)157 (20.63)
 1254 (31.95)232 (30.49)
 ≥ 1291 (53.85)362 (47.57)
 Missing1 (0.59)10 (1.31)
Maternal smoking
 Yes19 (11.24)69 (9.07)0.38
 No149 (88.17)691 (90.80)
 Missing1 (0.59)1 (0.13)
Previous live births
 Yes93 (54.44)465 (61.10)0.12
 No77 (45.56)296 (38.90)
In vitro fertilization/assisted reproductive technology
 Yes5 (2.96)8 (1.05)0.07
 No164 (97.04)753 (98.95)
Plurality
 Multiple birth6 (3.55)20 (2.63)0.45
 Singleton birth163 (96.45)741 (97.37)
Birth year0.45
 199816 (9.47)109 (14.32)
 199914 (8.28)89 (11.70)
 200019 (11.24)96 (12.61)
 200124 (14.20)96 (12.61)
 200224 (14.20)104 (13.67)
 200322 (13.02)89 (11.70)
 200427 (15.98)94 (12.35)
 200523 (13.61)84 (11.04)
aValues are N (%)
bComparison between case and control groups: Pearson chi-square to compare birth year; Fisher’s exact test to compare all other variables.