The gene for a previously unidentified small nuclear RNA has been cloned from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its nucleotide sequence has been determined. The RNA, snR30, was mapped to a unique coding sequence 605 nucleotides long. SnR30 appears to be one of the most abundant snRNAs of S, cerevisiae in that it can be resolved by ethidium bromide staining on one-dimensional denaturing gels of total yeast RNA. Like other snRNAs, snR30 is enriched in nuclei preparations and possesses a trimethyl guanosine cap structure at its 5' end. After substituting one allele of the wild type gene in a diploid strain for a deleted gene, after sporulation, haploid strains carrying the deletion were unable to grow, indicating that snR30 is required for an essential, but as yet, unknown function. The nucleotide sequence close to the initiation site of the SNR30 gene is similar to that of other yeast SNR genes whose transcripts are associated with pre-rRNA, suggesting that snR30 is related to this group of snRNAs.