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BMC Vet Res. 2012; 8: 26.
Published online Mar 14, 2012. doi:  10.1186/1746-6148-8-26
PMCID: PMC3366893
Longitudinal study on morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium
Bart Pardon,corresponding author1 Koen De Bleecker,2 Miel Hostens,3 Jozefien Callens,2 Jeroen Dewulf,3 and Piet Deprez1
1Department of Large Animal Internal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
2Animal Health Service-Flanders, Industrielaan 29, 8820 Torhout, Belgium
3Veterinary Epidemiology Unit, Department of Reproduction, Obstetrics and Herd Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, 9820 Merelbeke, Belgium
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
Bart Pardon: Bart.Pardon/at/UGent.be; Koen De Bleecker: Koen.DeBleecker/at/DGZ.be; Miel Hostens: Miel.Hostens/at/UGent.be; Jozefien Callens: Jozefien.Callens/at/DGZ.be; Jeroen Dewulf: Jeroen.Dewulf/at/UGent.be; Piet Deprez: Piet.Deprez/at/UGent.be
Received November 22, 2011; Accepted March 14, 2012.
Abstract
Background
Mortality and morbidity are hardly documented in the white veal industry, despite high levels of antimicrobial drug use and resistance. The objective of the present study was to determine the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in dairy, beef and crossbred white veal production. A total of 5853 calves, housed in 15 production cohorts, were followed during one production cycle. Causes of mortality were determined by necropsy. Morbidity was daily recorded by the producers.
Results
The total mortality risk was 5,3% and was significantly higher in beef veal production compared to dairy or crossbreds. The main causes of mortality were pneumonia (1.3% of the calves at risk), ruminal disorders (0.7%), idiopathic peritonitis (0.5%), enterotoxaemia (0.5%) and enteritis (0.4%). Belgian Blue beef calves were more likely to die from pneumonia, enterotoxaemia and arthritis. Detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus at necropsy was associated with chronic pneumonia and pleuritis. Of the calves, 25.4% was treated individually and the morbidity rate was 1.66 cases per 1000 calf days at risk. The incidence rate of respiratory disease, diarrhea, arthritis and otitis was 0.95, 0.30, 0.11 and 0.07 cases per 1000 calf days at risk respectively. Morbidity peaked in the first three weeks after arrival and gradually declined towards the end of the production cycle.
Conclusions
The present study provided insights into the causes and epidemiology of morbidity and mortality in white veal calves in Belgium, housed in the most frequent housing system in Europe. The necropsy findings, identified risk periods and differences between production systems can guide both veterinarians and producers towards the most profitable and ethical preventive and therapeutic protocols.
Keywords: Veal calves, Mortality, Morbidity, Respiratory disease, Bovine viral diarrhea virus, Arthritis, Enteritis, Peritonitis
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