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Logo of bmcmudisBioMed Centralsearchsubmit a manuscriptregisterthis articleBMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012; 13: 38.
Published online Mar 21, 2012. doi:  10.1186/1471-2474-13-38
PMCID: PMC3362766
Perceived exertion, comfort and working technique in professional computer users and associations with the incidence of neck and upper extremity symptoms
Agneta Lindegård,corresponding author1 Jens Wahlström,2 Mats Hagberg,3 Rebecka Vilhelmsson,4 Allan Toomingas,5 and Ewa Wigaeus Tornqvist6
1Institute of Stress Medicine, Göteborg, Sweden
2Department of Public Health & Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden
3Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy and University hospital, Göteborg, Sweden
4Clinical Information Science AstraZeneca R & D, Mölndal, Sweden
5Karolinska Institutet, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm, Sweden
6School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
Agneta Lindegård: agneta.lindegard/at/; Jens Wahlström: jens.wahlstrom/at/; Mats Hagberg: mats.hagberg/at/; Rebecka Vilhelmsson: rebecka.vilhelmsson/at/; Allan Toomingas: allan.toomingas/at/; Ewa Wigaeus Tornqvist: ewa.wigaeus-tornqvist/at/
Received July 5, 2011; Accepted March 21, 2012.
The aim of this study was to investigate whether perceived exertion, perceived comfort and working technique is associated with the incidence of neck and upper extremity symptoms among professional computer users.
At baseline a self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 853 participants from 46 different work sites (382 men and 471 women) who, at baseline, had been free from neck and upper extremity symptoms during the preceding month. Work-related exposures, individual factors, and symptoms from the neck and upper extremities were assessed. Observations of working technique were performed by ergonomists using an ergonomic checklist. Incidence data were collected by means of 10 monthly questionnaires, asking for information on the occurrence of neck, shoulder and arm/hand symptoms. Perceived exertion was rated on a modified Borg RPE scale ranging from 0 (very, very light) to 14 (very, very strenuous). Perceived comfort was rated on a 9-point scale ranging from -4 (very, very poor) to +4 (very, very good) in relation to the chair, computer screen, keyboard, and computer mouse.
The median follow up time was 10.3 months. The incidence of symptoms from the neck, shoulders and arm/hands were 50, 24 and 34 cases per 100 person years, respectively.
Higher perceived exertion in the neck, shoulder or arm/hands was associated with an increased risk of developing symptoms in the corresponding body region. Moreover, a dose-response relationship between the level of exertion and the risk of developing symptoms was recorded for all three regions. There was an association between low comfort and an increased risk for neck symptoms, but not for shoulder and arm/hand symptoms, although a trend towards such an association (not statistically significant) could be seen. Working technique was, in this study, not associated with the risk of developing symptoms in any of the investigated body regions.
There was a strong association between high perceived exertion and the development of neck, shoulder, and arm/hand symptoms. Moreover, there was an association between poor perceived comfort and neck pain. Surveillance of computer users may include perceived exertion and comfort to target individuals at risk for neck and upper extremity symptoms.
Keywords: Computer work, Perceived exertion, Perceived comfort, Working technique, neck and upper extremity disorders
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