During January 1, 2005-December 31, 2008, a total of 4,623 deaths were reported (). The average LOS was 5 days (median: 2 days; range: 0-181 days). Age at time of death was missing for 193 individuals, the average age at death for those with an age reported was 30 years (range: 0-100 years). Mortality occurred most frequently among those aged < 1 year (19.2%). The most commonly reported occupational group among those employed at the time of death was civil servant (14.9%). Majority of the decedents lived in the FCT and slightly over half of them (50.6%) resided in the Abuja Metropolitan Area Council (AMAC) at their time of death. Overall, most deaths were attributable to communicable diseases ().
Number and percentage of decedents by selected characteristics, Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Nigeria Hospitals, a, b 2005-2008
Percent distribution of total deaths by leading cause group and sex, Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Nigeria Hospitals, 2005-2008
Cause of death was missing for 2% of 888 children aged <1, 2% of 403 aged 1-4 years and 3% of 176 children aged 5-14. Among those aged <1 with a cause listed in the medical record, prematurity and low birth weight (15%) were reported most frequently, followed by sepsis (11%) and jaundice (10%). Malaria was the leading COD reported among children in the 1-4 (80 (20%) of 396) and 5-14 (41 (24%) of 171) year age groups. Pneumonia (11%) and sepsis (9%) were the second and third leading causes of death among children aged 1-4 while road traffic accidents (RTA) (13%) and HIV (9%) ranked as the second and third most common causes of death among 5-14 year olds.
Among adults aged =15 cause of death was not listed in the medical record for 4% (123) of deaths. HIV was the single leading cause of death reported collectively among adults aged =15 and the number one COD among adults in age groups 15-24 years (48 (21%) of 234), 25-34 years (307 (38%) of 819), 35-44 years (293 (41%) of 709), 45-54 years (151 (29%) of 522), and 55-64 years (40 (14%) of 295). However, HIV was not a leading COD among adults aged =65 years, accounting for only 1% (46 of 270) of deaths in this age group. Death due to injuries sustained in RTAs was the second overall leading COD among adults aged =15 years. RTAs also ranked as the second leading COD among young adults, aged 15-24 years and 25-34 years, and among middle aged adults 35-44 years (14%, 13%, and 9%, respectively). Hypertension, the third overall COD among adults aged =15 years was the second leading COD among those aged 45-54 years (11%) and 55-64 years (13%). Among adults aged =65 hypertension was the number one COD (17%).
Males and females shared many of the same 10 leading causes of death (). The burden of death due to HIV was the leading cause of death reported among both sexes with 30% (355) of all female and 29% (480) of all male deaths due to this one cause. Among the top 10 causes of death, mortality related to maternal causes, breast cancer, and diarrheal diseases were reported solely among females as leading CODs while unspecified intracerebral hemorrhage, septicemia, and unspecified kidney failure were exclusive to the top 10 CODs in males ().
Percentage of total deaths by 10 leading causes for adults aged 15 and older, Federal Capital territory, Nigeria Hospitals, 2005-2008
Mortality occurred more frequently among women than in men for only two age groups, ages 15-24 and ages 25-34 (139 (59%) of 234 and 455 (56%) of 819 respectively). Although HIV was a leading cause of death for both females and males aged 15-24 and 25-34 years, death due to HIV occurred four times as often among females aged 15-24 years 39 (81%) and twice as often among those aged 25-34 years 202 (66%) when compared to males in the same age groups, 9 (19%) and 103 (34%) respectively. Maternal causes related specifically to pregnancy and childbirth, the second leading cause of death among females was associated with 10% of deaths for females in both age groups 15-24 years (14 of 139) and 25-34 years (44 of 455).