Reliable methods for measuring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) incidence are a high priority for HIV prevention. They are particularly important to assess the population-level effectiveness of new prevention strategies, to evaluate the community-wide impact of ongoing prevention programs, and to assess whether a proposed prevention trial can be performed in a timely and cost-efficient manner in a particular population and setting. New incidence assays and algorithms that are accurate, rapid, cost-efficient, and can be performed on easily-obtained specimens are urgently needed. On May 4, 2011, the Division of AIDS (DAIDS), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), sponsored a 1-day workshop to examine strategies for developing new assays to distinguish recent from chronic HIV infections. Participants included leading investigators, clinicians, public health experts, industry, regulatory specialists, and other stakeholders. Immune-based parameters, markers of viral sequence diversity, and other biomarkers such as telomere length were evaluated. Emerging nanotechnology and chip-based diagnostics, including algorithms for performing diverse assays on a single platform, were also reviewed. This report summarizes the presentations, panel discussions, and the consensus reached for pursuing the development of a new generation of HIV incidence assays.