Bile duct ligation produces intestinal bacterial overgrowth
Mice underwent sham operation or bile duct ligation (BDL) for indicated time intervals. (A, B) Total aerobic bacteria (A) and anaerobic bacteria (B) were quantified by culture in the gastrointestinal tract (n=3–15). (C) 16S rRNA from the mouse cecum was sequenced using 454 Titanium technology. Experiment-specific operational taxonomic units (OTUs) representative sequences (97% identity) were classified using the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) classifier and plotted. Orange bars indicate OTUs containing the BDL group (3 mice, distributed among 1264 OTUs) and white bars indicate OTUs containing the sham control group (3 mice, distributed among 1245 OTUs). (D) The graph demonstrates the percentages of each community contributed by the indicated phyla. (E) Scatter plot of Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) on weighted and normalized P1 vs. P2 UniFrac distances. The BDL samples are in blue while the sham samples are in red. CFU = colony forming unit.*p<0.05.