Early bacterial translocation following ligation of the common bile duct
Mice underwent sham operation or bile duct ligation (BDL) for indicated time intervals. (A) Mice were gavage-fed FITC labeled dextran (200μl, 100mg/ml) one day following surgeries. Mice were sacrificed 4 hrs later, and fluorescence measured in the plasma (n=5; left panel). FITC-dextran (50μl, 100mg/ml) was injected into intestinal loops of mice which underwent sham or BDL operations one day prior. FITC was measured in the plasma 1 hr after injection (n=5; right panel). (B and C) Plasma endotoxin and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) levels were measured (n=4–8). (D) Aerobic bacteria were cultured and quantified in mesenteric lymph nodes (n=10–13) and blood (n=12–13); data are presented as median. CFU = colony forming unit. (E) Occludin and β-actin protein expression in intestinal sections were analyzed by Western blot analysis. A representative Western blot image is shown. Densitometry of Western blot images was performed. Values are presented relative to sham operated mice (n=5 in each group). (F) Immunofluorescent staining for occludin (green) was performed on colonic sections from mice that underwent sham or BDL operation. Nuclei are stained with Hoechst (blue). *p<0.05.