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Logo of bmcpsycBioMed Centralsearchsubmit a manuscriptregisterthis articleBMC Psychiatry
BMC Psychiatry. 2012; 12: 29.
Published online May 18, 2012. doi:  10.1186/1471-244X-12-29
PMCID: PMC3356225
Altered monocyte activation markers in Tourette’s syndrome: a case–control study
Judith Matz,#1 Daniela L Krause,corresponding author#1 Sandra Dehning,1 Michael Riedel,1,2 Rudolf Gruber,3 Markus J Schwarz,1 and Norbert Müller1
1Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig Maximilian University, Nussbaumstr. 7, 80336, Munich, Germany
2Vinzenz von Paul Hospital, Psychiatry, Schwenninger Str. 55, 78628, Rottweil, Germany
3Department of Rheumatology, Ludwig Maximilian University, Pettenkoferstr. 8a, 80336, Munich, Germany
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
#Contributed equally.
Judith Matz: Judith.Matz/at/; Daniela L Krause: Daniela.Krause/at/; Sandra Dehning: Sandra.Dehning/at/; Michael Riedel: M.Riedel/at/; Rudolf Gruber: Rudolf.Gruber/at/; Markus J Schwarz: Markus.Schwarz/at/; Norbert Müller: Norbert.Mueller/at/
Received August 9, 2011; Accepted April 2, 2012.
Infections and immunological processes are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of Tourette’s syndrome (TS). To determine possible common underlying immunological mechanisms, we focused on innate immunity and studied markers of inflammation, monocytes, and monocyte-derived cytokines.
In a cross-sectional study, we used current methods to determine the number of monocytes and levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in 46 children, adolescents, and adult patients suffering from TS and in 43 healthy controls matched for age and sex. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6), soluble CD14 (sCD14), IL1-receptor antagonist (IL1-ra), and serum neopterin were detected by immunoassays.
We found that CRP and neopterin levels and the number of monocytes were significantly higher in TS patients than in healthy controls. Serum concentrations of TNF-alpha, sIL1-ra, and sCD14 were significantly lower in TS patients. All measured values were within normal ranges and often close to detection limits.
The present results point to a monocyte dysregulation in TS. This possible dysbalance in innate immunity could predispose to infections or autoimmune reactions.
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