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Adv Virol. 2012; 2012: 637208.
Published online Apr 29, 2012. doi:  10.1155/2012/637208
PMCID: PMC3350948
Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity and NK Cell-Driven Immune Escape in HIV Infection: Implications for HIV Vaccine Development
Gamze Isitman, Ivan Stratov, and Stephen J. Kent *
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia
*Stephen J. Kent: skent/at/unimelb.edu.au
Academic Editor: Christoph Boesecke
Received January 11, 2012; Revised February 13, 2012; Accepted February 13, 2012.
Abstract
The HIV-1 genome is malleable and a difficult target tot vaccinate against. It has long been recognised that cytotoxic T lymphocytes and neutralising antibodies readily select for immune escape HIV variants. It is now also clear that NK cells can also select for immune escape. NK cells force immune escape through both direct Killer-immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)-mediated killing as well as through facilitating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). These newer finding suggest NK cells and ADCC responses apply significant pressure to the virus. There is an opportunity to harness these immune responses in the design of more effective HIV vaccines.
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