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Logo of bmcmudisBioMed Centralsearchsubmit a manuscriptregisterthis articleBMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2012; 13: 41.
Published online Mar 22, 2012. doi:  10.1186/1471-2474-13-41
PMCID: PMC3348031
Musculoskeletal symptoms and computer use among Finnish adolescents - pain intensity and inconvenience to everyday life: a cross-sectional study
Paula T Hakala,corresponding author1,2 Lea A Saarni,3 Raija-Leena Punamäki,4,5 Marjut A Wallenius,4 Clas-Håkan Nygård,1 and Arja H Rimpelä1
1School of Health Sciences, FIN-33014 University of Tampere, Finland
2Tampere University Hospital, PO Box 2000, FIN-33421 Tampere, Finland
3Tampere University of Applied Sciences, Kuntokatu 3, 33520 Tampere, Finland
4School of Humanities and Social Sciences, FIN-33014 University of Tampere, Finland
5Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, FIN-00014 University of Helsinki, Finland
corresponding authorCorresponding author.
Paula T Hakala: paula.t.hakala/at/; Lea A Saarni: lea.saarni/at/; Raija-Leena Punamäki: raija-leena.punamaki/at/; Marjut A Wallenius: marjut.wallenius/at/; Clas-Håkan Nygård: clas-hakan.nygard/at/; Arja H Rimpelä: arja.rimpela/at/
Received August 7, 2011; Accepted March 22, 2012.
Musculoskeletal symptoms among adolescents are related to the time spent using a computer, but little is known about the seriousness of the symptoms or how much they affect everyday life. The purpose of the present study was to examine the intensity of musculoskeletal pain and level of inconvenience to everyday life, in relation to time spent using a computer.
In a survey, 436 school children (12 to 13 and 15 to 16 years of age), answered a questionnaire on musculoskeletal and computer-associated musculoskeletal symptoms in neck-shoulder, low back, head, eyes, hands, and fingers or wrists. Pain intensity (computer-associated symptoms) and inconvenience to everyday life (musculoskeletal symptoms) were measured using a visual analogue scale. Based on the frequency and intensity, three categories were formed to classify pain at each anatomic site: none, mild, and moderate/severe. The association with time spent using the computer was analyzed by multinomial logistic regression.
Moderate/severe pain intensity was most often reported in the neck-shoulders (21%); head (20%); and eyes (14%); and moderate/severe inconvenience to everyday life was most often reported due to head (29%), neck-shoulders (21%), and low back (16%) pain. Compared with those using the computer less than 3.6 hours/week, computer use of ≥ 14 hours/week, was associated with moderate/severe increase in computer-associated musculoskeletal pain at all anatomic sites (odds ratio [OR] = 2.9-4.4), and moderate/severe inconvenience to everyday life due to low back (OR = 2.5) and head (OR = 2.0) pain.
Musculoskeletal symptoms causing moderate/severe pain and inconvenience to everyday life are common among adolescent computer users. Daily computer use of 2 hours or more increases the risk for pain at most anatomic sites.
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