A cohort study was done on 152 patients referring to Mazandaran Heart Center in North of Iran. Inclusion criteria: Age over the 40 years who's Coronary artery disease as defined by previous or current detection of 50% stenosis of a main coronary artery by coronary angiography.Or no significant stenosis of coronary artery.
Exclusion criteria: Diabetic, Periodontal treatment and/or antibiotic therapy during the last 6 months, Pregnancy, Current alcohol or drug abuse, or psychological reasons that make study participation impractical
Drugs which are potential causal for gingival hyperplasia such as (Hydantoin, Nifedipine, Cyclosporin A, and other)
The people studied divided in two groups by coronary angiography results.. Demographic information were derived from questions asked during the interviewed to age, sex, literacy level, weight, LDL and HDL, exercise,, smoking, blood pressure for all the two groups. Then a periodontal examination was done (by general dentist and periodontitis) for all participants of the study, who was unaware from the result of patient's angiography.
Coronary artery disease defined by stenosis more than 50% lumen in at least one coronary artery in angiography.Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease of tissues or teeth holder tissue that gradually causes the destruction of tissues and loss of teeth. Clinical periodontal examination included measuring plaque (plaque terms), bleeding on examination with the probe (Barnett bleeding indexes), Probing packet depth at the mesial, distal, Bucal, Palatal or Lingual surface of all teeth except the third molar has been done and CAL (Clinical Attachment Level) was calculated.
Plaques were recorded according to Silness & loe index. Plaque depth measuring, the entrance depth of probe in longitudinal axis of tooth and also CAL as mm is registered and the number of teeth remaining were recorded.
Plaque index (Silness & loe): accumulation of debries in gingival margins of tooth that is determined with the scale of 0 to 3.
0 = No plaque
1 =A film of plaque adhering to the free gingival margin and adjacent area of the tooth. The plaque may be observed in situ only after application of a disclosing solution or by using a probe on the tooth surface.
2 = moderate accumulation of soft deposits within gingival pocket, or on the tooth and gingival margin, that can be seen with the naked eye.
3 = an abundance of soft matter within the gingival pocket, on the tooth and gingival margin, in all these areas.
Modified papillary Bleeding Index (Barnett) bleeding after the probing of gums sulcus bleeding gums, diffuse marginal inflammation, and swollen red papillae is determined with the Scale of zero to 3:
Zero: the lack of bleeding after 30 seconds
One: bleeding after 30 seconds
Two: bleeding 2 to 30 seconds
Three: bleeding less than 2 seconds
Gingival groove depth: Shallow crevice or space around the tooth bounded by the surface of the tooth on one side and the epithelium lining the free margin of the gingiva on the other, V shaped. Sulcus depth can be measured by a periodontal probe.Histologic depth is about 1.8mm, probing depth is 2–3 mm.
Clinical Attachment Level: The amount of space between attached periodontal tissues and a fixed point, usually the cement enamel junction.
A measurement used to assess the stability of attachment as part of a periodontal maintenance program.
Statistical significance was set at 0.05, and the unit of analysis was the person.. Bivariate relationships were assessed by t
tests or Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests for continuous variables and Cochran Mantel-Haenszel χ2
statistics and odds ratios and 95% CIs for categorical variables.. Potential confounders were based on the literature and our previous findings on the relationship between clinical periodontal disease and CAD.13