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Nucleic Acids Res. 1991 March 11; 19(5): 983–995.
PMCID: PMC333770

Fine structural features of the chloroplast genome: comparison of the sequenced chloroplast genomes.


The entire nucleotide sequences of the rice, tobacco and liverwort chloroplast genomes have been determined. We compared all the chloroplast genes, open reading frames and spacer regions in the plastid genomes of these three species in order to elucidate general structural features of the chloroplast genome. Analyses of homology, GC content and codon usage of the genes enabled us to classify them into two groups: photosynthesis genes and genetic system genes. Based on comparisons of homology, GC content and codon usage, unidentified ORFs can also be assigned to each of these groups such that it is possible to speculate about the functions of products which may be produced by these ORFs. The spacer regions and intron sequences were compared and found to have no obvious homology between rice and liverwort or between tobacco and liverwort.

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Selected References

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