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From:
Published online Jan 20, 2012. doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-12-8
Table 2
Summary of retrieved RCTs on the use of ocular medications in the paediatric population
Pharmaco-therapeutic GroupDrug nameFormulationN° RCTsN° ChildrenAge range
MYDRIATIC/CYCLOPLEGIC MEDICATIONS74 (35%)

Antimuscarinic agentAtropineeye drops 1%313530all

Cyclopentolateeye drops 0.5%228≤ 13 yrs

eye drops 1%11181≤ 16 yrs

Tropicamideeye drops 1%9348all

Pirenzepineophthalmic gel 1%32766 - 12 yrs

Cyclopentolate/Tropicamideeye drops 1%/1%6176all

Sympathomimetic agentPhenylephrineeye drops 2.5%110≤ 1 m

Antimuscarinic agent + Sympathomimetic agentTropicamide/Phenylephrineeye drops 1%/2.5%392≤ 1 m

eye drops 0.5%/2.5%251≤ 8 yrs

eye drops 0.5%/0.5%1123-11 yrs

Cyclopentolate/Phenylephrineeye drops 1%/2.5%230≤ 6 yrs

eye drops 0.2%/1%399≤ 1 m

ANTI-INFECTIVE MEDICATIO NS51 (24%)

Antibacterial agentChloramphenicoleye drops 0.5%71664≤ 12 yrs

Azithromycineye drops 1%1335≥ 1 yr

eye drops 1.5%2542≥ 1 yr

Tetracyclineeye drops 1%25181- 10 yrs

eye ointment 1%2218≥ 6 ms

Besifloxacineye suspension 0.6%31124≥ 1yr

Fusidic acideye drops 1%3594≤ 2 yrs

Moxifloxacineye drops 0.5%3645all

Tobramycineye drops3741≤ 12 yrs

Ciprofloxacineye drops 0.3%2193≤ 12 yrs

Levofloxacineye drops 0.5%21061-16 yrs

Gentamycineye ointment2117≤ 12 yrs

Erythromycineye drops1110≤ 1 m

eye ointment124≤ 1 yr

Ofloxacineye drops 0.3%123≥2 yrs

Oxytetracyclineeye drops 1%1450≤ 1 m

Sulphacetamideeye drops 10%114≤ 1 m

Antibacterials combinationsPolymixin B/Oxytetracyclineeye ointment21322-10 yrs

Polymixin B/Bacitracineye ointment166≥ 1 m

Polymixin B/Trimethoprimeye drops128all

Antibacterial agent + NSAIDGentamycin/Diclofenaceye drops112≤ 12 yrs

Antibacterial agent + Steroid agentNeomycin/Betamethasoneeye drops112≤ 12 yrs

Tobramycin/Dexamethasoneeye drops1284-10 yrs

Antifungal agentsMiconazoleeye suspension 1%112≥ 15 yr

Econazole/Miconazoleeye suspension 1%/1%17≥ 15 yr

Other anti-infective eye preparationPovidone-iodineeye drops 2.5%43132≤ 1 yr

Silver nitrateeye drops 1%1450≤ 1 m

ANTI-ALLERGY MEDICATIONS31 (15%)

Anti-histamine agentLevocabastineeye suspension 0.5%6174≥ 3 yrs

Ketotifeneye drops 0.025%5522≥ 3 yrs

Olopatadineeye drops 0.2%499≥ 3 yrs

Azelastineeye drops 0.02%4132≥ 4 yrs

Bepotastineeye drops 1%136≥ 10 yrs

eye drops 1.5%136≥ 10 yrs

Emedastineeye drops 0.05%1-3-16 yrs

Mast cell stabilizerLodoxamideeye drops 0.1%115≥ 6 yrs

Cromoglycateeye drops 2%4128≥ 4 yrs

eye drops 4%130≥ 16 yrs

Nedocromileye drops 2%385≥ 4 yrs

ANTI-INFLAMMATORY MEDICATIONS18 (9%)

CorticosteroidDexamethasoneeye drops 0.1%6159all

Fluorometholoneeye drops 0.1%352≤ 10 yrs

Rimexoloneeye drops 1%1224 - 8 yrs

NSAIDDiclofenaceye drops 0.1%493≥ 2 yrs

Ketorolaceye drops 0.5%370≤ 12 yrs

Flurbiprofeneye drops150≥ 5 yrs

ANTIGLAUCOMA MEDICATIONS10 (5%)

Beta-blockerTimololeye drops 0.25%2447-13 yrs

eye drops 0.5%112≥ 14 yrs

gel-forming solution 0.25%135≤ 6yrs

gel-forming solution 0.5%136≤ 6yrs

Betaxololeye suspension 0.25%152≤ 6 yrs

Levobetaxololeye suspension 0.5%146≤ 6 yrs

Carbonic anhydrase inhibitorBrinzolamideeye suspension 1%132≤ 6 yrs

Dorzolamideeye drops 2%156≤ 6 yrs

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitorEchothophate iodideeye drops120-

PERI-OPERATIVE MEDICATIONS18 (9%)

Local anaesthetic agentBupivacainesubconjuntival infiltration2385-10 yrs

eye drops 0.5%1173-6 yrs

Proparacaineeye drops 0.5%358≤ 1 m

Lidocaineeye drops 2%1103 - 14 yrs

ophthalmic gel 2%1243-12 yrs

Amethocaineeye drops 0.5%2452 - 8 yrs

Levobupivacaineeye drops1131 - 16 yrs

Oxybuprocaineeye drops 0.4%1203-8 yrs

Tetracaineeye drops 1%1441-12 yrs

Sucroseeye drops111≤1 m

Chemotherapeutic agentsMitomicyn Ceye drops 0.02%110≥ 6 yrs

ocular injection 0.4%17≥ 6 yrs

5-fluorouracilocular injection14≤ 12 yrs

Mitomicyn C/5-fluorouracilocular injection14≤ 12 yrs

OTHER DRUGS7 (3%)

Vernal keratoconjunctivitisCyclosporineeye drops 2%1145-16 yrs

eye drops 1.25%1205-14 yrs

eye drops 1%1325-14 yrs

Mipragosideophthalmic gel 0.5%1125-20 yrs

ROP therapyBevacizumabintravitreal injection17≤ 1 m

EsotropiaBotulinum toxinocular injection1276-12 yrs

DacryocystitisHerba houttuyaniaeeye drops1268≤ 1 m

TOTAL (69 single drugs & combinations)20918,816
NOTE: the total is higher than the sum of the RCTs (158) because some drugs were tested in more than one trial. The references to RCTs are available upon request to the corresponding author.
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