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It has been suggested that soluble urokinase plasminogen activator (suPAR) can be used as a marker of disease severity and risk of mortality in sepsis. The aim with the present study was to compare plasma levels of suPAR in patients with severe sepsis to control subjects and correlate it with the level of inflammatory activation, severity and mortality. Samples were collected from 27 sepsis patients at the intensive care unit (ICU), Lund, Sweden; 90-day mortalities were registered. The suPAR level was significantly elevated in sepsis patients compared to controls, but not significantly higher in nonsurvivors than survivors. Plasma levels of suPAR did correlate weakly with the SOFA score and myeloperoxidase (MPO) but not with CRP, PCT, IL-6 or IL-10 in patients with severe sepsis. The weak correlation between suPAR and other inflammatory markers might suggest that suPAR reflects general activation of the immune system rather than exerting inflammatory actions.