Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a main risk factor for liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, particularly to those patients with chronic liver disease or injury. The similar etiology leads to a high correlation of the patients suffering from the disease of liver cirrhosis with those suffering from the disease of hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the biological mechanism for the relationship between these two kinds of diseases is not clear. The present study was initiated in an attempt to investigate into the HCV infection protein network, in hopes to find good biomarkers for diagnosing the two diseases as well as gain insights into their progression mechanisms. To realize this, two potential biomarker pools were defined: (i) the target genes of HCV, and (ii) the between genes on the shortest paths among the target genes of HCV. Meanwhile, a predictor was developed for identifying the liver tissue samples among the following three categories: (i) normal, (ii) cirrhosis, and (iii) hepatocellular carcinoma. Interestingly, it was observed that the identification accuracy was higher with the tissue samples defined by extracting the features from the second biomarker pool than that with the samples defined based on the first biomarker pool. The identification accuracy by the jackknife validation for the between-genes approach was 0.960, indicating that the novel approach holds a quite promising potential in helping find effective biomarkers for diagnosing the liver cirrhosis disease and the hepatocellular carcinoma disease. It may also provide useful insights for in-depth study of the biological mechanisms of HCV-induced cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma.