Mangroves and associated plants provide a wide domain for therapeutic application in recent years, most yet to be explored. The leaves of A. corniculatum
are reportedly rich in flavonoids with proven anti-inflammatory and antioxidant property.[18
] Evaluation of physiological and toxic effects, solvent used for extraction, route of administration, and acute or chronic effect of A. corniculatum
leave extract are quite diversified, which is encouraged by delineating the beneficial applications of the study plant and confines various assessments.
Alloxan is an oxygenated pyrimidine derivative which selectively destroys insulin-secreting beta-cells in the experimental animals, which results in alloxan diabetes.[19
] In the present investigation, blood sugar level increased as expected in alloxan-injected animals, since alloxan causes a massive reduction in insulin release, by the destruction of the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans and inducing hyperglycemia.[20
Oral administration of A. corniculatum
(25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight) resulted in a significant reduction in the blood glucose and improvement in body weight. The decrease in body weight in diabetic rats clearly confirms a degradation of structural proteins due to diabetes. The structural proteins are known to contribute for the body weight.[21
] The deficiency of the anabolic hormone insulin decreased protein synthesis in all tissues in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Structural proteins are important constituents of the body and are required for the body's structure and proper function. The rate of structural protein synthesis affects organ protein mass, body size, and amino acid requirements. The ability of the A. corniculatum
to protect from maximum body weight loss seems to be due to its ability to reduce hyperglycemia.
Within six to eight weeks, the blood sugar level of the patients had been determined by the amount of HbA1c
in the red blood cells. Normal human red cells contain 3.4 to 5.8% HbA1c
; during diabetes, the level has been increased within the red blood cells, which reflects the average level of glucose to which the cell has been exposed during the life cycle.[22
] In the present study, diabetic rats have high blood glucose level due to the influences of level that was high in red blood cells. The sugar levels decreased immensely in A. corniculatum
-administered diabetic rats.
The intracellular glucose has been utilized by insulin in several ways. The increased level of insulin influences the activity of gluconeogenic enzymes that results in the initiation of hepatic glycolysis. All types of cells contain hexokinase. Hexokinase D or glucokinase is more specific for glucose and differ with other forms of hexokinase in kinetic and regulatory properties, which has been found in hepatocytes.[23
] Hexokinase plays a central role in the maintenance of glucose homeostasis, it catalyzes the conversion of glucose to glucose-6-phosphate. Also, hexokinase is an important regulator of glucose storage and disposal in the liver.[24
] In the present study, the hexokinase activity was decreased in alloxan-diabetic rats which may be due to insulin deficiency (insulin stimulates and activates glucokinase). Treatment with A. corniculatum
or glibenclamide elevated the activity of more effective therapeutic compounds in mangroves.