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Mitogenic stimulation of resting T cells results in the de novo transcription of a large number of genes including those encoding regulatory molecules such as lymphokines. The genomic organization of two newly described induced lymphokine genes, 464.1 and 744.1, has been determined. 464.1 and 744.1 appear to be the human homologues of the recently cloned murine macrophage inflammatory proteins, MIP-1 alpha and MIP-1 beta, respectively. The 464.1 and 744.1 genes share 55% amino acid homology and demonstrate parallel regulation of induced expression in T cells. It was therefore of interest to observe that these genes are closely linked in the human genome, separated by 14 kb, and are organized in a head to head fashion. Each of the genes is present in an additional nonallelic copy (referred to as 464.2 and 744.2) as part of an apparent amplification unit in the genome of many individuals. The 464.2 gene is expressed and potentially encodes a protein highly related to 464.1, varying in 5 of 92 amino acids. As expected, 464.2 and 744.2 are also closely linked to each other as determined by population linkage disequilibrium studies. Individuals bearing a chromosome with a third amplification event, involving a 464-related gene but not a 744-related gene, are also infrequently observed. These genes are all located on chromosome 17 in bands q11-q21, the region implicated in von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis (NF1) and in acute promyelocytic leukemia (AML-M3).